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  1. Film speed (5065 bytes)
    1: ...ne with a shorter exposure and is called a ''fast film''.
    4: ...inear scale and a logarithmic scale for measuring film speed.
    6: ...wice as sensitive as a film rated ISO 100/21°.
    8: ...re generally rated between 100/21° and 800/30°, inclusive.
    10: The following table shows the correspondence between these scales:
  2. Film (18911 bytes)
    2: [[Image:Film reel and film.jpg|thumb|250px|"Film" refers to the celluloid media on which movies ar...
    4: ...-speaking international community prefer to use ''film'' or "cinema", due to the colloquial nature of th...
    6: ...ception of motion — a psychological effect identified as [[beta movement]].
    8: ...] or [[subtitle]]s that translate the dialogue. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures,...
    11: ==History of film==

Page text matches

  1. Hanging Gardens of Babylon (4963 bytes)
    1: ...[image:ogrody_semiramidy.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Gardens of Semiramis, 20th century interpretation]]
    3: ...[[Babylon]] were considered one of the [[Seven Wonders of the World]]. They were both supposedly buil...
    5: ...t completely substantiate what look like fanciful descriptions.
    7: ... possible use of something similar to an [[Archimedes' screw]] as a process of raising the water to th...
    8: ...'s History of the Ancients program The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. -->
  2. King Arthur (22450 bytes)
    1: ...h [[Medieval]] Welsh texts often call him ''amerauder'' ("[[emperor]]").
    5: ...his power and the extent and kind of power he wielded continues to rage.
    7: ...Geoffrey Ashe and Leon Fleuriot, have argued for identifying Arthur with a certain [[Riothamus]], "Kin...
    9: ...ing the historical career of Artorius makes this identification unlikely, as there seems to be little ...
    11: ...eves that Arthur is a half-forgotten Celtic deity devolved into a personage (citing sometimes a suppos...
  3. China (38909 bytes)
    1: ...e [[3rd century BC]] to protect the north from raiders on horseback.]]
    3: ...nding on one's point of view, modern China can be described as a single [[civilization]] or multiple c...
    5: ...of China]] in [[1912]]; however the next four decades were marred by warlordism, the [[Second Sino-Jap...
    7: ...utes on [[Chinese reunification]]/[[Taiwan independence]] issues.
    14: ...of China at the centre of her known world, surrounded by lesser tributary states.
  4. Religion in China (12456 bytes)
    1: ...0px|Temple incense near Beijing China. Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clipar...
    3: ... religions dot the landscape of China. The most widespread religion of China is [[Chinese traditional ...
    9: ...r belief systems that developed within China include [[ancestor worship]], [[Chinese folk religion]], ...
    11: ...etween the forces of heaven and earth. A central idea of the [[dynastic cycle]] was that an unjust imp...
    13: Minor religions introduced from abroad include [[Islam]] and [[Christianity]].
  5. November 4 (10686 bytes)
    7: ...)|Antwerp]] (after three days the city was nearly destroyed).
    8: ...Moscow]] China Town taken by [[Russia]]n troops under command of [[Dmitri Mikhailovich Pozharski|Dmitr...
    10: ...[[Kingdom of Sardinia|Sardinia]], which soon expanded to become [[Italy]].
    12: ...bombard a [[United States|Union]] supply base and destroy millions of dollars in material.
    14: ... Democratic Party|Democrat]] [[Grover Cleveland]] defeats [[United States Republican Party|Republican]...
  6. List of people by name: Ab (7347 bytes)
    4: ...bacha|Abacha, Sani]], (1943-1998), [[List of Presidents of Nigeria|dictator]] of [[Nigeria]] (1993-199...
    9: *[[Abati]] ''aka'' Niccolo Dell'Abbato, (1512-1571), artist
    22: ...a Ahmad Abbas|Abbas, Khwaja Ahmad]], (1914-1987), film director
    50: *[[Abd-el-Kader]], (circa 1807-1883), Emir of Mascara
    52: ... Abdo|Abdo, Hussam]], (born 1989), Palestine suicide bomber
  7. List of people by name: Ah (925 bytes)
    4: ...951]]), [[Taoiseach|Irish prime minister]] and leader of [[Fianna Fᩬ]]
    7: ...feldt, Karl Gustav]], ([[1910]]-[[1985]]), Danish film actor
    11: ...ad|Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam]] ([[1839]]-[[1908]]), founder of [[Ahmadi]] sect
    16: ...isaari, Martti]], (born 1937), UN diplomat & president of [[Finland]]
  8. Sibylla of Jerusalem (11497 bytes)
    1: ...Melisende of Jerusalem|Queen Melisende]] had provided an example of successful rule by a queen regnant...
    5: ... former Queen [[Melisende of Jerusalem]], who founded the convent of St. Lazarus in Bethany for her si...
    9: ...t cousin of Sibylla, arrived in [[1177]] and demanded to have the princess married to one of his own v...
    11: ...tween the princess and his prisoner, Saladin demanded a large ransom, which Baldwin himself could not ...
    19: ...he accord between Jerusalem and Egypt. Baldwin IV deposed Guy as regent in [[1183]] and attempted to h...
  9. Isabella of Castile (4156 bytes)
    2: ...ain|Ferdinand V]] as co-ruler. She was also the ''de-facto'' co-ruler of her husband's dominions. This...
    5: ...-granddaughter to [[Nuno Alvares Pereira]], Count de Barcelos and his wife Leonor Alvim, Countess of B...
    8: ...Her final set of grandparents were [[Afonso, Duke de Braganza]], a son of John I of Portugal by Inez P...
    10: ... [[Henry the Navigator]], and his wife [[Isabella de Bragan硝].
    19: As a reaction, Isabella was despised by opposers to Franco.
  10. Eleanor of Aquitaine (11927 bytes)
    3: '''Eleanor of Aquitaine''' ([[Bordeaux]], [[France]], c. [[1124]] – [[March 31]...
    6: ...], [[Duke of Aquitaine]], and her mother was Ʈor de Chⴥllerault, the daughter of Aimeric I, Vicomte...
    8: ... and richest of the provinces that would become modern [[France]], when her brother, William Aigret, d...
    10: ...uld remain independent of France, and Eleanor's eldest son would be both King of France and [[Dukes of...
    12: ...paign, with her, the Queen of France, as their leader.
  11. Marguerite de Valois (5364 bytes)
    1: ...humb|250px|right|style=margin-left:1em|Marguerite de Valois]]
    2: '''Marguerite de Valois''' ([[May 14]], [[1553]] – [[May 27]...
    4: ...f [[Henry II of France|Henri II]] and [[Catherine de' Medici]]. Three of her brothers became kings of...
    6: ...eanne d'Albret died before the marriage was concluded.
    8: ... It was reported that during the ceremony, the bride and groom stared straight ahead, never looking at...
  12. Mary I of England (24813 bytes)
    8: ... or [[19 July]] 1553 (''[[de facto]]'') until her death. Mary, the fourth and penultimate monarch of t...
    13: ...was created Princess of Wales, even though he was deeply disappointed that his wife had again failed t...
    15: ...[[English language|English]]. Other studies included [[Greek language|Greek]], [[science]], and [[mus...
    17: ...h England. A marriage treaty was signed; it provided that the Princess Mary should marry either Franc...
    19: ... [[Roman Catholic Church]]. All appeals from the decisions of English ecclesiastical courts to the Po...
  13. Mary I of Scotland (27810 bytes)
    7: ...of Scots,''' was the ruler of [[Scotland]] from [[December 14]], [[1542]] – [[July 24]], [[1567]...
    9: ...[[1516]] – [[1558]]), and whose reign coincided with that of Mary, Queen of Scots.
    12: ...ames V of Scotland]] and his French wife, [[Marie de Guise]].
    15: ...es of the royal house had gone extinct before the death of Mary's father.
    17: ...Stuart during her time in France, and she and her descendants stuck with it.)
  14. Christina of Sweden (9364 bytes)
    1: ...attle of L?] ([[November 6]], [[1632]]) during Sweden's intervention in Germany in the [[Thirty Years'...
    3: <table border=1 cellpadding=2 cellspacing=0 align=right style=...
    5: ...ourdon stor.jpg|center|185px|Christina of Sweden, depicted by S颡stien Bourdon]]
    12: ...td>'''Predecessor'''<td>[[Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden]]
    13: ...lign=top><td>'''Successor'''<td>[[Charles X of Sweden]]
  15. Elizabeth I of England (34338 bytes)
    7: ...al monarch of the [[Tudor dynasty]], having succeeded her half-sister, [[Mary I of England|Mary I]]. S...
    9: ...]. Elizabeth was a short-tempered and sometimes indecisive ruler. This last quality, viewed with impat...
    11: The reign was marked by prudence in the granting of [[British honours system|ho...
    16: ...on after [[Edward VI of England|Prince Edward]] under the [[English Act of Succession|Act of Successio...
    18: ...daughter's spiritual welfare to Parker before her death. Later, Parker would become the first Archbish...
  16. Diana, Princess of Wales (29391 bytes)
    5: dead=dead |
    8: date_of_death=[[31 August]], [[1997]] |
    9: place_of_death=[[Paris]], [[France]]
    11: ...t always called '''Princess Diana''' by the media despite never having had the right to that title, as...
    13: ... [[charity]] work, the Princess's philanthropic endeavours were overshadowed by a [[scandal]]-plagued ...
  17. Alexandra Kollontai (3203 bytes)
    1: ...ne of the very few "[[Old Bolshevik]]s" to escape death during the [[Great Purge]]s of the [[1930s]].
    5: ...Vladimir Lenin]] in [[1903]], Kollontai did not side with either faction. However, she came to dislik...
    7: ... known for founding the [[Zhenodtel]] or "Women's Department" in [[1919]]. This organization worked to...
    11: ... Kollontai was more or less totally politically sidelined.
    13: ... [[Sweden]]. She was also a member of the Soviet delegation to the [[League of Nations]]. She died i...
  18. Emma Goldman (12210 bytes)
    3: ... language representative in [[London]] of the [[Federaci󮠁narquista Ib鲩ca|CNT-FAI]].
    6: ...for her anarchist ideas and her independent attitude.
    9: At the age of 17 she emigrated with her elder sister, Helene, to Rochester, NY, to live with t...
    10: ...anberkman.jpe|thumb|240px|right|Goldman and Alexander Berkman]]
    13: ...attempted assassination of [[Henry Clay Frick]] made her highly unpopular with the authorities. Berkma...
  19. Rosa Parks (8331 bytes)
    6: ... of the [[NAACP]]. She also attended the [[Highlander Folk School]], an education center for workers' ...
    8: ...She was arrested, tried, and convicted for [[disorderly conduct]] and for violating a local ordinance.
    10: ...next night, 50 leaders of the negro community, headed by a relatively unknown minister ([[Martin Luthe...
    14: ...1965]] until [[1988]]. She continues to reside in Detroit.
    16: ==Debated aspects of Parks' story and its place in the...
  20. Isabel Allende (3632 bytes)
    1: ...ughter of [[Salvador Allende]], see [[Isabel Allende (politician)]]''
    3: ...[Image:Isabelallende_writer.gif|thumb|Isabel Allende]]
    4: '''Isabel Allende Llona''' (born [[August 2]], [[1942]]) is a [[Chi...
    6: ...nde, the cousin of [[Salvador Allende]], the President of [[Chile]] from [[1970]] to [[1973|73]]. In...
    8: ...n to [[Lebanon]]. While in Bolivia, Allende attended an [[United States|American]] private school, an...
  21. Marguerite Duras (1799 bytes)
    3: ...as '''Marguerite Duras''', was a [[writer]] and [[film director]].
    7: ... was also the screenwriter of the [[1959]] French film ''[[Hiroshima mon amour]]'', which was directed b...
    9: ...st eschewing synch sound, using voice over to allude to, rather than tell, a story over images whose r...
  22. Artemisia Gentileschi (23093 bytes)
    1: ...]'' (1612-21) Oil on canvas 199 x 162 cm Galleria degli [[Uffizi]], Florence]]
    3: ...ings, at a time when such heroic themes were considered beyond a mere woman's reach.
    7: ...more talent than her brothers, who worked along side her. She learned drawing, how to mix color and ho...
    9: ...anna and the Elders, Sch?rn Collection, Pommersfelden]]
    10: ...]] in [[Pommersfelden]]. The picture shows how, under parental guidance, Artemisia assimilated the rea...
  23. Mary Pickford (7523 bytes)
    3: ...], [[1892]] &ndash; [[May 29]], [[1979]]) was a [[film|motion picture]] [[actor|star]], known as "Americ...
    5: ...ther, n饠Charlotte Hennessy, began taking in boarders, and through one of these lodgers Gladys, aged ...
    7: ...tten by William C. DeMille, brother of [[Cecil B. DeMille]], who was also in the cast. The play was p...
    9: ... for Best Actress]] in [[1929]], but retired from films four years later, after a series of disappointin...
    11: ...s driving and Fairbanks was discussing the recent death of his mother, the clock stopped.
  24. Ayn Rand (18001 bytes)
    5: dead=dead |
    8: date_of_death=[[March 6]], [[1982]] |
    9: place_of_death=[[New York City]], [[New York]]
    11: ... values. Rand viewed this hero as the ideal and made it the express goal of her literature to showcase...
    14: ... values from others by physical force, or impose ideas on others by physical force.
  25. Virginia Woolf (9482 bytes)
    7: ... in dialogue with Bloomsbury, particularly its tendency (informed by [[G.E. Moore]], among others) tow...
    9: ...the twentieth century and one of the foremost [[Modernists]], though she disdained some artists in thi...
    11: ...erimented with [[stream-of-consciousness]], the underlying psychological as well as emotional motives ...
    13: ...nd visual impressions; Woolf is at her best in rendering self-soliloquizing existences whose perpetual...
    15: ..., near her home in [[Rodmell]]. She left a [[suicide note]] for her husband: "I feel certain that I am...
  26. Jackie Cochran (7825 bytes)
    4: ...b at a prestigious salon in [[Saks Fifth Avenue]] department store.
    6: ...fered to help her establish a cosmetics business. Despite her lack of education, Ms. Cochran had a qui...
    8: After a friend offered her a ride in an airplane, a thrilled Jacqueline Cochran beg...
    10: ... she made up a story about being adopted to avoid dealing with the reality of her estranged and impove...
    12: ...g America's entry into the War, in 1942 she was made director of women's flight training for the Unite...
  27. Bessie Coleman (4340 bytes)
    4: ...eman graduated from eighth grade and briefly attended college at Colored Agricultural and Normal Unive...
    8: ...ial backing from Binga, and from the Chicago Defender, who capitalized on her flamboyant personality a...
    10: ... had failed many times. Once, she saw a fellow student die during practice. However, she learned quick...
    14: ... As her notoriety grew, she was invited to make a film about her life. Ultimately, she walked off the s...
    16: ...ether wreck. Her friends and family did not consider the aircraft safe and implored her not to fly it...
  28. Marie Curie (5862 bytes)
    2: ...logy]] and a two-time [[Nobel laureate]]. She founded the [[Curie Institute|Curie Institutes]] in [[Pa...
    5: ...Eventually, with the monetary assistance of her elder sister, she moved to [[Paris]] and studied [[che...
    7: ... was far more radioactive than uranium; thus on [[December 26]]th Marie Curie announced the existence ...
    9: ...itially the chloride salts (refining radium chloride on [[April 20]], [[1902]]) and then two new [[che...
    11: ... Becquerel]]". She was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize.
  29. Maria Callas (4931 bytes)
    3: '''Maria Callas''' ([[December 2]], [[1923]] &ndash;[[September 16]], [[19...
    5: .... Together with Serafin, Callas subsequently recorded and performed many bel canto operas, contributin...
    7: ...or many roles. Her later [[stereo]] recordings evidence masterly musical interpretations with an incre...
    9: ... was a disaster due to Callas's almost-completely destroyed voice.
    11: ...cqueline Kennedy]], widow of assassinated US president [[John F. Kennedy]].
  30. Ella Fitzgerald (9400 bytes)
    6: ...[1935]], in Harlem's [[Savoy Ballroom]]. She recorded several hit songs with them, including "(If You ...
    8: ...bb died in [[1939]], the band continued touring under the new name, "Ella Fitzgerald and Her Famous Or...
    10: ... other singers: in particular, she was able to render quite perfectly [[Marilyn Monroe]]'s voice and t...
    12: ...iddle, and [[Duke Ellington]], a later collection devoted to one composer occured during the [[Pablo R...
    14: ...scar Peterson]], [[Count Basie]] ("On the Sunny Side of the Street"), [[Joe Pass]] ("Speak love"), [[D...
  31. Billie Holiday (6766 bytes)
    3: ...'''[[Jazz royalty|Lady Day]]''' is generally considered one of the greatest [[jazz]] [[singer]]s of al...
    7: ...ng as a [[prostitute]] with her mother. This preceded her move to [[New York]] with her mother sometim...
    9: ...er as a "[[Frank DeViese]]". Some historians consider this an anomaly, probably inserted by a hospital...
    16: ...ormance, with pianist (and then-lover) [[Bobby Henderson]], did much to solidify her standing as a jaz...
    20: ...songs, her unique tone and emotional commitment made her performances special.
  32. Janis Joplin (8673 bytes)
    4: ...tin, Texas|Austin]], though she never completed a degree. There, she began singing blues and [[folk mu...
    6: ...olism|drinker]] throughout her career, and her trademark beverage was [[Southern Comfort]].
    8: ... with independent [[Mainstream Records]] and recorded an eponymously titled album in [[1967]]. Howeve...
    10: ... and together with the Monterey performance, it made Joplin into one of the leading musical stars of t...
    14: ...ry social commentary of the ''a capella'' "[[Mercedes-Benz]]", written by beat poet [[Michael McClure]...
  33. Alanis Morissette (25762 bytes)
    6: ...cade later in the songwriting, singing, and attitude of singers such as Aguilera, [[Avril Lavigne]], a...
    10: ...an older brother, Chad, and a [[twin]] brother, Wade.
    23: With the support of her parents and a relentless desire to succeed, Morissette traveled with Howe to ...
    26: :''And your fake identification''
    30: :''I'll be dealing with".''
  34. Bessie Smith (7284 bytes)
    5: ...helped her develop a stage presence. Smith began developing her own act around [[1913]], at [[Atlanta...
    7: ...Joe Smith]], [[Charlie Green]], and [[Fletcher Henderson]].
    9: ...itle song accompanied by members of [[Fletcher Henderson]]'s orchestra, the Hall Johnson Choir, and a ...
    11: ...her old blues groove, but "Take Me For A Buggy Ride" and "Gimme a Pigfoot", are among her most popula...
    13: ...on]]'s uncle) Richard Morgan. They were in an accident and Smith was severely injured. A doctor soon a...
  35. Lucinda Williams (4182 bytes)
    8: ...round the country and gained fans among music insiders, including [[Tom Petty]], who would later cover...
    10: ...s as a songwriter. [[Mary Chapin Carpenter]] recorded a bowdlerized cover of "Passionate Kisses" (from...
    12: ...ritical acclaim, but her commercial success was moderate. [[Emmylou Harris]] said of Williams, "She is...
    16: ...''[[The Horse Whisperer]]'', the album received wide critical notice and soon went gold. It received a...
  36. Sheryl Crow (8611 bytes)
    9: ...ecords]] in [[1990]] and was ready to release her debut album in [[1991]]. However, she did not like t...
    11: ...rofessional relationship, eventually creating her debut album, called ''[[Tuesday Night Music Club]]''...
    13: ...erformance and Best New Album. Other singles included "A Change Would Do You Good", "Home" and "Everyd...
    15: ... contributed the theme song to the [[James Bond]] film ''[[Tomorrow Never Dies]]''. The song of the same...
    17: ...e Rock Vocal Performance in 2000 when it was included in her album, "Sheryl Crow and Friends: Live fro...
  37. Tori Amos (27672 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Toriamos-dent.jpg|right|thumb|Tori Amos]]
    3: ...ed following. She is probably best known to the wider public for a [[dance]] [[remix]] of "[[Professio...
    10: ...so recorded a song called "Distant Storm" for the film [[China O'Brien]]; in the credits, the song is at...
    13: ...ovie soundtrack. A remix of the song is also included on the soundtrack.
    15: ===''Under The Pink''===
  38. Phoolan Devi (2526 bytes)
    3: '''Phoolan Devi''' ([[10 August]] [[1963]] - [[25 July]] [[2001...
    5: ... accumulated her own gang, with herself as the leader.
    7: ...n what was later dubbed the Behmai Massacre. She denied any involvement in the massacre.
    9: ...a part of this arrangement, in [[1983]] she surrendered on a stage before a crowd of 10,000 people.
    11: ...dously symbolic to this group. After her release, Devi converted to [[Buddhism]] as part of the [[Neo-...
  39. Bonnie and Clyde (17385 bytes)
    2: ...ge:Bonnie_and_Clyde.jpg|thumb|200px|Bonnie and Clyde clowning.]]
    3: ... the [[central United States]] during the [[Great Depression]], often with various members of the [[Ba...
    5: ...he attention of the [[American]] press and its readership during what is sometimes referred to as the ...
    11: ...personal account of their crime spree and looming demise.
    13: == Clyde ==
  40. Mary Magdalene (15420 bytes)
    2: ...fe of the historical Mary is a subject of ongoing debate.
    6: ...her, 'Do not cling to Me, for I have not yet ascended to My Father; but go to My brethren and say to t...
    12: ...he disciples ask questions of the risen Savior (a designation that dates the original no earlier than ...
    14: ...r he prepared us and made us into men." She then delivers - at Peter's request - a vision of the Savi...
    18: ...this. For certainly these teachings are of other ideas."
  41. Mother Teresa (22682 bytes)
    2: <!-- FAIR USE of Mother-teresa-03.jpg: see image description page at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ima...
    4: ...r]] of Calcutta (later renamed [[Kolkata]]) was widely reported.
    6: ...ward, the [[Bharat Ratna]] in [[1980]]. She was made an [[Honorary Citizen of the United States]] in [...
    11: ...tion to help the poor from the age of 12, and decided to train for missionary work in [[India]]. She w...
    13: ...sa in honour of [[Teresa of Avila]] and [[Th鲨se de Lisieux]]. She took her final vows in May [[1937]...
  42. Joan of Arc (27453 bytes)
    1: ... between [[1450]] and [[1500]] (Centre Historique des Archives Nationales, [[Paris]], AE II 2490).]]
    2: ...[[20th century]]; currently being a focus of considerable interest in the [[Republic of Ireland]], [[C...
    7: ...e River|Meuse]] to [[Jacques D'Arc]] and Isabelle de Vouthon, a [[peasant]] family later granted [[nob...
    11: ...mb|''Jeanne d' Arc'' by Eugene Thirion ([[1876]]) depicts Joan's awe upon receiving a vision from the ...
    12: ...lies to the city of [[Orl顮s]], which had been under siege by the English since the previous October....
  43. Mata Hari (3970 bytes)
    1: ...xotic dancer]] and convicted [[espionage|spy]], made her name synonymous with ''[[femme fatale]]'' dur...
    3: ...a Geertruida Zelle''' (spelled '''Margarete Gertrude Zelle''' in English), a [[Netherlands|Dutch]] [[e...
    5: ...hile her mother was of [[Java (island)|Java]]nese descent. Around the turn of the [[20th century]], a...
    7: ...ntire nations resting on Mata Hari should be regarded as myths.
    9: ...t to succumb to her charms. However, one would wonder how they managed to shoot her accurately if that...
  44. Hannah Szenes (4490 bytes)
    9: ... ''Maccabea'', a Hungarian [[Zionism|Zionist]] student organization.
    11: Szenes graduated 1939 and decided to move to study in the Girls' Agricultural Scho...
    13: ... Hannah and her comrades crossed the Hungarian border in small groups. She was captured before she cou...
    28: ...s sang it and this song ends some versions of the film ''[[Schindler's List]]'':
    55: :''Happy is the blaze that burnt inside the hearts.''
  45. Violette Szabo (2541 bytes)
    3: ..., [[Order of the British Empire|M.B.E.]], [[Croix de Guerre|CdG]] ([[June 26]], [[1921]] &ndash; [[Fe...
    5: ...t of as the definitive World War II [[Poem code|code-poem]] ''[[Yours (poem)|Yours]]''.
    9: ...nce with her [[Sten]] gun. She was interrogated under [[torture]], then sent to [[Ravensbr?ncentration...
    11: ...embers of the SOE were executed by the Germans: [[Denise Bloch]], [[Cecily Lefort]], and [[Lilian Rolf...
    13: ...l]] in the town of [[Valen硹]], in the [[Indre]] depart魥nt.
  46. Maya Deren (3661 bytes)
    1: [[Image:MayaDeren.png|200px|thumb|right|Maya Deren]]
    2: ... [[American]] [[avant-garde]] [[filmmaker]] and [[film]] theorist of the [[1940]]s and [[1950]]s.
    4: Deren was born in [[Kiev]], [[Ukraine]]. In [[1922]...
    6: ...m. It was in 1943 that she adopted the name Maya Deren.
    8: ...and Prix Internationale]] for 16mm [[experimental film]] at [[Cannes]] for ''Meshes of the Afternoon''.
  47. Leni Riefenstahl (8095 bytes)
    2: ...]s for the German [[Nazi Party]]. Shut out of the film industry after [[World War II|the war]], she late...
    5: ... it; her main interest was initially in fictional films.
    7: ...t]]: the film was released in [[1935]] as ''[[Tag der Freiheit]]'' (''[[Day of Freedom]]'') and is now...
    9: ...material became ''[[Olympia_(film)|Olympia]]'', a film celebrated for its technical and aesthetic achiev...
    13: ...f her using [[concentration camp]] inmates on her film sets, but those claims could not be proved in cou...
  48. Penny Marshall (1609 bytes)
    5: ...y]]'' from ([[1976 in television|1976]]-[[1983 in film|1983]]).
    9: She has directed several successful feature [[film|motion pictures]] since the mid-[[1980s]], includ...
    11: ==Filmography==
    16: ...[[The Christian Licorice Store]]'' (1971) (scenes deleted)
    17: *''[[How Come Nobody's on Our Side?]]'' (1975)
  49. Lucille Ball (12427 bytes)
    2: ...[[comedian]] and star of [[I Love Lucy]]. A 'B-grade' [[movie star]] of the [[1940s]], she became one ...
    4: ...a romance with a local bad boy (Johnny), Ball decided to enroll in the
    5: ...on sentence. Right then, Ball decided that she needed to escape the traumas of her life.
    7: ..."royalty" honor with [[Macdonald Carey]], who was designated as her "king".
    9: ...ivorced in [[1945]], but remarried the same year, deciding to patch things up.
  50. Tallulah Bankhead (6331 bytes)
    2: ...rockman Bankhead''' ([[January 31]], [[1902]] - [[December 12]], [[1968]]) was a [[United States]] [[a...
    4: ...Senator [[John H. Bankhead]] ([[1842]]-[[1920]]) (Democrat from Alabama [[1907]]-[[1920]]).
    10: ...affairs with men and women. By the end of the decade, she was one of the [[West End (of London)|West E...
    12: ...[Hollywood]] success eluded her in her first four films of the 30s. Critics agree that her acting was fl...
    16: ...he cynical Bankhead could have played "Fiddle-Dee-Dee" Scarlett with anything approaching a straight f...
  51. Ingrid Bergman (5216 bytes)
    1: ..., [[1982]]) was an [[Academy Award]]-winning [[Sweden|Swedish]] [[Actor|actress]].
    3: ...1939]]). The film was an enormous success and "Sweden's illustrious gift to [[Hollywood]]" had arrived...
    5: ...emy_Award_for_Best Actress|Best Actress]] for the film, ''[[For Whom the Bell Tolls]]'' ([[1943]]). The ...
    7: ...e of Rossellini's and Bergman's children is the model and actress [[Isabella Rossellini]].
    9: ... final performance on the big screen. It is considered to be among her best performances.
  52. Sarah Bernhardt (3531 bytes)
    4: ...rvatoire de Musique et D飬amation'' by the [[Duc de Morny]] in [[1859]] for theatrical training.
    6: ...ver Europe and in the [[United States]]. She soon developed a reputation as a serious dramatic actress...
    8: ...pting herself, as well as modelling for [[Antonio de La Gandara]]. She was also to publish a series of...
    10: ... collapsed, largely due to the young actor's dependence on morphine.
    12: ...ed ''Sarah Bernhardt ࠂelle-Isle'' ([[1912]]), a film about her daily life at home.
  53. Bette Davis (6722 bytes)
    3: ...), better known as '''Bette Davis''', was an [[Academy Award]] winning [[United States|American]] [[ac...
    5: ...ed insincere. So, she enrolled in [[John Murray Anderson]]'s dramatic school (who sent her classmate [...
    7: ... received many write-in votes from disgruntled Academy members.
    9: ...amed the "Oscar", but only served from October to December [[1941]], when she resigned. Her career be...
    11: ...r another [[Academy Award|Oscar]] nomination. The film, which was the only time that Davis and Crawford ...
  54. Judi Dench (3254 bytes)
    1: ...|center|thumb|right|250px|Judi Dench as M in ''GoldenEye'']]
    2: ...) is a renowned [[United Kingdom|British]] stage, film and television actress.
    4: ...h Empire]] (DBE); in [[2005]], she was made a [[Order of the Companions of Honour|Companion of Honour]...
    6: Her many television appearances include the series ''[[As Time Goes By]]'' and the afore...
    9: In her native [[United Kingdom]], Dame Judi has developed her reputation as arguably the greatest Br...
  55. Catherine Deneuve (2766 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Catherine deneuve.jpg|thumb|Catherine Deneuve at Cannes in 2000]]
    2: '''Catherine Deneuve''' (born [[October 22]] [[1943]]) is a [[Fra...
    4: ...4), the late [[Surrealist]] masterpiece ''[[Belle de Jour]]'' ([[Luis Buñuel]], 1967), and the Franco...
    6: ...ovie)|Indochine]]'' and was nominated for an [[Academy Award for Best Actress]] for the same performan...
    17: *1982 - ''Hôtel des Amériques''
  56. Mia Farrow (4707 bytes)
    1: ...Farrow on the cover of ''[[Glamour]]'', [[1968 in film|1968]]]]
    2: ...een known as '''Mia'''. She is the daughter of [[film director|director]] [[John Farrow]] and his wife,...
    5: ...a]] on [[July 19]] [[1966]]. While working on the film ''[[Rosemary's Baby]]'' with director [[Roman Pol...
    16: ...nically about famous mothers and their children modeling the latest fashions for families.
    18: ...man Polanski]] and his wife [[Sharon Tate]] while filming ''Rosemary's Baby''.
  57. Jodie Foster (4460 bytes)
    2: ...[United States|American]] [[Actor|actress]] and [[Film director|director]].
    5: ...d a BA in literature, graduating ''[[magna cum laude]]'' in 1985.
    7: ...g Actress]] for her role in [[Martin Scorsese]]'s film ''[[Taxi Driver]]''.
    9: ...n Globe]] and [[Academy Award for Best Actress|Academy Awards]] as Best Actress for her role as a gang...
    11: ...exual orientation]]. Her brother's [[biography]] identifies her as such, but since the book is unautho...
  58. Greta Garbo (9957 bytes)
    3: ...1905]] &ndash; [[April 15]], [[1990]]) was a [[Sweden|Swedish]] [[actor|actress]].
    5: ... Anna Lovisa Johnasson ([[1872]]-[[1944]]). Her older sister and brother were Alva and Sven.
    8: ...part for the movie ''Peter The Tramp'' ([[1920 in film|1920]]).
    10: ...]] Greta Garbo. She starred in two movies in [[Sweden]] and one in [[Germany]].
    12: ...me grew. He was fired by MGM and returned to [[Sweden]] in [[1928]], where he died soon after.
  59. Ava Gardner (4142 bytes)
    2: '''Ava Gardner''' ([[December 24]], [[1922]] &ndash; [[January 25]], [[19...
    6: ...[Frank Sinatra]] from 1951 to 1957. She was regarded as one of the most beautiful actresses in [[Holl...
    12: ...989, which left her partially paralyzed and bedridden, [[Frank Sinatra]] paid all her medical expenses...
    16: ...ate Beckinsale]] in ''[[The Aviator]]'' (2004), a film by [[Martin Scorsese]] about [[Howard Hughes]].
    18: ==Filmography==
  60. Katharine Hepburn (23170 bytes)
    2: ...0-year acting career. In [[1999]], the [[American Film Institute]] ranked Hepburn the greatest actress o...
    5: ...d with giving her a sense of adventure and independence.
    7: ...sh; she fearlessly performed her own pratfalls in films such as ''[[Bringing Up Baby]]'', which is now h...
    8: ...and information about her brother's apparent suicide and its great impact on Hepburn -->
    10: ...ay her degree was in drama -->, the same year she debuted on [[Broadway]] after landing a bit part in ...
  61. Helen Hunt (3298 bytes)
    7: ...th [[Jack Nicholson]]), for which she won an [[Academy Award for Best Actress]] in [[1998]].
    9: ...first actress to win both an [[Emmy]] and an [[Academy Award]] in the same year.
    11: ...n [[July 18]], [[1999]]. The couple divorced on [[December 18]], [[2000]].
    15: == Filmography ==
    18: *''[[The Curse of the Jade Scorpion]]'' (2001)
  62. May Irwin (2858 bytes)
    1: ...]], was an actress, singer and major star of [[vaudeville]].
    4: ... girls debuted in nearby [[Buffalo, New York]] in December of 1874. By the fall of 1877, their career ...
    6: ...t of 1884. In 1886 her husband of eight years, Frederick W. Keller, passed away unexpectedly.
    8: ...1896, the [[Kinetoscope]] production, [[The Kiss (film, 1896)|The Kiss]], became the first screen kiss i...
    12: ...performers. In 1914, she made her second [[silent film]] appearance, this time in the feature-length ada...
  63. Grace Kelly (6610 bytes)
    3: ... Award|Oscar]]-winning [[United States|American]] film [[actor|actress]] who became the wife of [[Prince...
    5: ...llowed in that tradition. ''Kelly Drive'' in Philadelphia is named for John, Jr., who was a city counc...
    7: ...first [[film]], ''[[Fourteen Hours]]'' ([[1951 in film|1951]]), when she was 22. The following year she ...
    9: ...ilms with [[Alfred Hitchcock]]: ''[[Dial M for Murder]]'', ''[[Rear Window]]'', and ''[[To Catch a Thi...
    11: ... for ''[[The Country Girl]]''. While it was being filmed, she engaged in a brief affair with co-star [[B...
  64. Nicole Kidman (11782 bytes)
    1: ...Kidman''' (born [[June 20]], [[1967]]) is an [[Academy Award]] winning [[Australia|Australian]] [[actr...
    10: ...|Flirting]]'' (1991). In 1989 she appeared in ''[[Dead Calm]]'' which gained her notice in the United ...
    13: ...ried on [[Christmas Eve]] of [[1990]] in [[Telluride, Colorado]]. The couple adopted two children, Isa...
    15: ...ne persistent rumour claims however that Kidman's desire to bring up their children [[Catholicism|Cath...
    19: ...hut]]'' ([[1999]]), [[Stanley Kubrick]]'s final [[film]], when she co-starred with her husband as a marr...
  65. Vivien Leigh (4286 bytes)
    3: ... She then went on to graduate from the [[Royal Academy of Dramatic Art]].
    7: ...rd]]'', but told no one until late [[1938]], when filming began. [[Paulette Goddard]] was close to be ca...
    11: ...s year of Blanche DuBois in ''[[A Streetcar Named Desire]]''.
    13: ...ed to keep a framed photograph of him on her bedside table, even while living with her companion, acto...
    19: ==Filmography==
  66. Sophia Loren (9622 bytes)
    3: ...oren''' (born [[September 20]], [[1934]]) is considered to be the most famous [[Italy|Italian]] actres...
    7: ... prizes and was discovered by her future husband, film producer [[Carlo Ponti]].
    9: ...er acting career took off upon meeting [[Vittorio De Sica]] and [[Marcello Mastroianni]] in [[1954]].
    11: ...ler in Pink Tights]]'' (in which she appeared blonde for the first time in her career).
    13: ...eing the first actor to win a major category [[Academy Award]] (Best Actress) for a non-English langua...
  67. Marilyn Monroe (30186 bytes)
    2: ...en presence, stunning good looks and mysterious [[death]] would make her a perennial [[sex symbol]] an...
    4: ...ld eventually become the most celebrated actor in film history, Marilyn's beginnings were humble to say ...
    6: ...'s mother, Gladys Pearl Monroe Baker, worked as a film-cutter. However in later years, more and more hav...
    8: ...Ida claimed that she and Wayne had seriously considered adopting her, which they could not have done w...
    10: ...ospital in [[Norwalk, California|Norwalk]], where Della had died; Gladys's father, Otis, died in a men...
  68. Isabella Rossellini (2696 bytes)
    3: ... on [[June 18]] [[1952]], is a [[model (person)|model]] and an [[Actor|actress]], daughter of [[Ingrid...
    6: ... ''[[Cousins]]'' a Hollywood remake of the French film <i>Cousin, Cousine</i>, and Nimue in the 1998 min...
    8: ... ''[[Casablanca (movie)|Casablanca]]'' in an episode of ''[[Tales from the Crypt (TV series)|Tales fro...
    10: ...Martin Scorsese]], and later married to [[John Wiedemann]] with whom she has a daughter, Elettra. She ...
    14: Her modeling career began when she was photographed by [[B...
  69. Meryl Streep (12114 bytes)
    2: ...m the [[1980s]] to the present day, has been regarded as one of the best in her field.
    5: ...s]], [[1979]]), and ''[[Sophie's Choice]]'' ([[Academy Award for Best Actress|Best Actress]], [[1982]]...
    7: ...on so many greatest movie star lists, Streep also defied expectations by her happy home life&mdash;mar...
    9: ...to date&mdash;and her noted comic turn in ''[[She-Devil]]''.
    11: ...s Room]]'', and completing another successful decade with ''[[Music of the Heart]]'', for which she le...
  70. Julie Andrews (8700 bytes)
    3: ...est known for her starring roles in the [[musical film]]s ''[[Mary Poppins]]'' ([[1964]]) and ''[[The So...
    5: ...& Hammerstein]]'s television adaptation of ''[[Cinderella]]''.
    7: In [[1956]], composers [[Frederick Loewe]] and [[Alan Jay Lerner]] cast Andrews ...
    9: ...Newman]] (both in [[1966]]), and ''[[Thoroughly Modern Millie]]'' ([[1967]]), with [[Mary Tyler Moore]...
    11: ...-[[1973]], but the greatest critical acclaim accorded her TV work was for her [[variety show]] special...
  71. Reese Witherspoon (2585 bytes)
    2: ...s sequel ''[[Legally Blonde 2: Red, White and Blonde]]'' ([[2003]]).
    5: ...ited States Declaration of Independence]] and founder of [[Princeton University]]. Her father is a sur...
    7: ...eth Phillippe, born [[September 9]], [[1999]] and Deacon Phillippe, born [[October 23]], [[2003]].
    9: ...ind the character of Greta Wolfecastle in an episode of [[The Simpsons]].
    11: ==Filmography==
  72. Nadia Comaneci (5337 bytes)
    3: ... of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. She is considered by some to be one of the greatest athletes in ...
    5: ...ter "Nadezhda" ("Hope"), the heroine of a Russian film.
    7: ...ela Karolyi]] and his wife Marta, who would later defect to the [[United States]] and become coaches o...
    11: Comaneci successfully defended her European all-around title in 1977, but the R...
    13: ...t from her metal grip buckle. Against doctors' orders, she left the hospital and competed on beam whe...
  73. Sonja Henie (2914 bytes)
    4: ...ng the [[1924]] program, she skated over to the side of the rink several times to ask her coach for di...
    6: By the next Olympiad, she needed no such assistance. She won her first of ten con...
    10: ...]]. She retired from acting in [[1958]] with the film ''Hello, London''. She became one of the wealthi...
    12: ...e basis for the [[Henie-Onstad Art Centre]] at H?dden, near [[Oslo]].
    14: ...kemia]], on a flight from [[Paris]] to Oslo. Considered by most as the greatest female figure skater i...
  74. Shirley Muldowney (1811 bytes)
    1: ... magazine, featuring Shirley Muldowney and her trademark pink dragster]]
    4: Muldowney was described by longtime drag racer [[Fred Farndon]] as...
    10: ...rtrayed by actress [[Bonnie Bedelia]] in the 1983 film, ''[[Heart Like a Wheel]]''.
  75. Katarina Witt (1117 bytes)
    1: ...he received an [[Emmy Award]] for her role in the film "Carmen on Ice". In addition, she has worked as a...
    5: * [http://www.katarina-witt.de/ Official Web Site]
    6: ...iwomen/2001/december/playbook/ Sports Illustrated Dec 2001 Interview]
  76. Campion (697 bytes)
    11: **[[Jane Campion]] (a [[film director]])
  77. Middle Ages (21063 bytes)
    1: ...eginning of the [[Early Modern]] period that preceded the [[Industrial Revolution]].
    5: ...] flourished in the early '''Middle Ages''': [[Hildesheim]].]]
    6: ...cial senses were unevolved and its technologies undeveloped, compared to the preceding culture.
    8: ...ished, leading to the rise of illiteracy among leadership.
    10: ===A new order===
  78. Iconography (7643 bytes)
    1: ...00px|''[[Salvator Mundi]]'' is an [[iconography]] depicting [[Christ]] with his right hand raised in [...
    2: ...[symbolism|symbolically]] mean more than a simple depiction of the person involved.
    4: ...ms of change, the flower of new life, the fire of destruction, etc.). The many heads, eyes, feet, and ...
    6: ...[[Old Testament]] scriptures against the material depiction of the immaterial [[God]] is overturned in...
    8: ...irement of the iconographer in order to correctly depict the spiritual realm. For the [[Eastern Orthod...
  79. Manuscript (5266 bytes)
    1: ...uced some other way. Information may be hand-recorded in other ways than in manuscripts, as [[inscript...
    8: ...oll]]s (''volumen'' in Latin) or [[book]]s (''[[codex]], codices''). Manuscripts were produced on [[v...
    10: ...ch making a single copy from an original that was declaimed aloud.
    12: ... languages]], written on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the [[Tarim Basin]] of Central Asi...
    16: ...brew language|Hebrew]] manuscripts, such as the [[Dead Sea scrolls]] make no such differentiation.
  80. Cor anglais (2674 bytes)
    1: ...amore]]s but larger. If the oboe were to be regarded as a soprano in C, then the "cor anglais" would ...
    7: ...manding to play. The amount of breath support needed is greater than for the oboe, as is the difficul...
    9: ...which is generally done by the performer, is considered something of an art. While performing, cor an...
    15: ...tainty that this is the case. This probable misunderstanding gave birth to another one, the naming of...
    22: ...scores over the oboe, most likely because its rounder tone quality.
  81. Accordion (10069 bytes)
    9: [[Image:KlavierAccordeon.jpg|thumbnail|200px|right|a piano accordion]]
    10: ...e, and as air is drawn through the hole in the holder, the reed vibrates, producing sound.
    12: Modern free-reed instruments have several aspects in c...
    22: ...ons, which is more similar to a clarinet than a modern free-reed instrument.
    25: ... with Jew's Harps. The reeds were mounted on a wooden soundboard, similar to concertinas.
  82. Pipe organ (24478 bytes)
    1: ...on for the visible pipes of an organ to be purely decorative, with the real pipes behind them.]]
    7: ...ce of [[classical music]]. In the era of [[silent film]]s, large pipe organs were installed in many [[ci...
    13: ''A more detailed article is to be written at [[styles of pip...
    15: ...everal distinctive styles of pipe organ have been developed and achieved popularity at particular time...
    19: ...n attempt to provide authentic voices for an extended repertoire, and each one of these instruments is...
  83. Ashoka (15187 bytes)
    5: ...abharata rulers, to unify such a vast territory under his empire, which in retrospect exceeds the boun...
    10: ...anked Queen known as Dharma. Ashoka had several elder siblings and just one younger sibling, Vitthasho...
    14: ...omed by the revolting militias and the uprising ended without a fight. (The province revolted once mor...
    16: Ashoka's success made his step-brothers more wary of his intentions of ...
    18: ...utra]], but instead sent him back to Ujjain and made him the governor of Ujjain.
  84. Nile (13738 bytes)
    12: ... River|Amazon]] still remains the subject of much debate. This is, for the most part, due to two reaso...
    24: ...lthough the lake itself has feeder rivers of considerable size from the other [[Great Lakes (Africa)|G...
    26: ...Abyad, or the [[White Nile]], from the clay suspended in its waters. From there, the river flows to [...
    32: ...[[:Image:Nile River and delta from orbit.jpg|Nile delta]])]]
    40: ...he Nile in Sudan, looking north across the Sahara Desert towards Lake Nasser and Egypt. Photograph IS...
  85. Andrew Jackson (23546 bytes)
    1: {{Infobox President | name=Andrew Jackson
    3: | image name=Seal_us_presdent.jpg
    4: | order=7th President
    7: | preceded= [[John Quincy Adams]]
    8: | succeeded= [[Martin Van Buren]]
  86. Alexandria (28378 bytes)
    3: ...ntry's capital was ended, and it fell into a long decline, which by the late [[Ottoman]] period had se...
    5: ...|right|Alexandria's state-of-the-art [[library]], designed by [[Christoph Kapellar]], was inaugurated ...
    16: * The modern city from [[1798]] (red).
    19: ...in. Alexander's seers, and in particular [[Aristander of Telmessus]], interpreted this as an omen that...
    21: ...t the foundation, but are thwarted when Alexander descends in a glass box, and armed with exact knowle...
  87. Australia (39438 bytes)
    13: leader_titles = [[Queen of Australia|Queen]]<br>[[Gover...
    14: leader_names = [[Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom|Eli...
    16: area_magnitude=1_E12|
    24: population_density = 2|
    25: population_density_rank = &mdash;|
  88. United States (59108 bytes)
    2: ... level of local autonomy under the [[federation|federal]] system.
    12: ...deral level]];<br> [[English language|English]] [[de facto]] |
    14: government_type = [[Democratic]] [[Federal republic]] |
    15: ...r>[[Vice President of the United States|Vice President]] |
    16: leader_names = [[George W. Bush]]<br>[[Dick Cheney]] |
  89. Pakistan (74854 bytes)
    7: ... ittihād, nazm<br /> ([[Urdu]]: Faith (self confidence), Unity, Discipline) |
    13: government_type = [[Federal republic]] |
    14: ..._titles = [[President of Pakistan|President]]<br />[[Prime Minister of Pakistan|Prime Minis...
    15: leader_names = [[Pervez Musharraf]]<br />[[...
    19: area_magnitude = |
  90. Sudan (18856 bytes)
    2: ...ast, [[Kenya]] and [[Uganda]] to the southeast, [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]] and the [[Central...
    19: ...s = [[List of Presidents of Sudan|President]] |
    20: leader_names = [[Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir...
    24: area_magnitude = 1 E12 |
    31: population_density = 15 |
  91. Culture of China (15738 bytes)
    1: ...a.jpg|thumb|250px|Chinese Tea Ceremony Image provided [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clipart]]...
    3: ...na's history, and mastery of Confucian texts provided the primary criterion for [[Imperial examination...
    10: ...bronze casting art work, noted for its clarify of detail. Early Chinese music and poetry was influenc...
    12: ...y appreciated arts in court circles, with a great deal of work done on silk until after the invention ...
    14: ... Chinese poetry. In this period, the highly regarded greatest Chinese poets, [[Li Po]] and [[Du Fu]] ...
  92. Mummy (16225 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Mummy 1.jpg|thumb|250px|Clipart provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    2: ...reserved [[corpse]] that, due to shielding from [[decomposition]] by either natural or artificial mean...
    8: ...orld. Some of the best-preserved mummies formed under natural conditions date from the [[Inca]] period...
    12: ...he [[English language|English]] word ''mummy'' is derived from mediaeval [[Latin]] ''mumia'', a borrow...
    16: ...mmification was made so that the bodies would not decompose in the afterlife. The mummified individual...
  93. Babe Ruth (55357 bytes)
    4: ...the ''[[Roaring Twenties]]'' as the fan base expanded significantly and triggered major expansion of n...
    7: ...ed above the saloon they owned and operated on Camden Street. Kate would walk to her father's home eac...
    9: ...ry recalled how their father would beat Babe in a desperate attempt to bring the boy into line, but to...
    12: ... every play. One day, as his team was getting pounded, Babe started mocking his own pitcher. Brother M...
    15: ...ot in such good shape. In 1914 the breakaway [[Federal League]], a rebel major league which would las...
  94. Arizona (24318 bytes)
    25: DensityRank = 36th |
    26: 2000Density = 17.43 |
    27: AdmittanceOrder = 48th |
    30: Latitude = 31?20'N to 37?N |
    31: Longitude = 109?3'W to 114?50'W |
  95. California (63989 bytes)
    8: Nickname = The Golden State |
    23: PCDesert = 25 |
    28: DensityRank = 12<sup>th</sup> |
    29: 2000Density = 83.78 |
    30: AdmittanceOrder = 31<sup>st</sup> |
  96. North Carolina (18268 bytes)
    22: DensityRank = 17<sup>th</sup> |
    23: 2000Density = 63.80 |
    24: AdmittanceOrder = 12<sup>th</sup> |
    27: Latitude = 34?N to 36?21'N |
    28: Longitude = 75?30'W to 84?15'W |
  97. Hawaii (34434 bytes)
    21: DensityRank = 13<sup>th</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 42.75 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 50<sup>th</sup> |
    26: Longitude = 154?40'W to 162?W |
    27: Latitude = 18?55'N to 29?N |
  98. Kansas (21369 bytes)
    21: DensityRank = 40<sup>th</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 32.9/mi&sup2;; 12.7 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 34<sup>th</sup> |
    25: ...re Central except for<br>4 counties on western border.</small> |
    26: Latitude = 37?N to 40?N |
  99. Utah (29154 bytes)
    23: DensityRank = 41<sup>st</sup> |
    24: 2000Density = 10.50 |
    25: AdmittanceOrder = 45<sup>th</sup> |
    28: Longitude = 109?W to 114?W |
    29: Latitude = 37?N to 42?N |
  100. Texas (39610 bytes)
    13: ...ge|English]] and [[Spanish language|Spanish]] are de facto. |
    21: DensityRank = 28th |
    22: 2000Density = 30.75 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 28th |
    24: AdmittanceDate = [[December 29]], [[1845]] |
  101. Pennsylvania (32594 bytes)
    10: ...rgestCity = [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Philadelphia]] |
    11: Governor = [[Ed Rendell]] |
    21: DensityRank = 10<sup>th</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 105.80 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 2<sup>nd</sup> |
  102. Oregon (26551 bytes)
    21: DensityRank = 39<sup>th</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 13.76 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 33<sup>rd</sup> |
    26: Latitude = 42&deg;N to 46&deg;15'N |
    27: Longitude = 116&deg;45'W to 124&deg;30'W |
  103. Nebraska (13662 bytes)
    21: DensityRank = 42<sup>nd</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 8.6 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 37<sup>th</sup> |
    26: Latitude = 40?N to 43?N |
    27: Longitude = 95?25'W to 104?W |
  104. Nevada (17565 bytes)
    21: DensityRank = 43<sup>rd</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 7.03 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 36th |
    26: Longitude = 114?W to 120?W |
    27: Latitude = 35?N to 42?N |
  105. New Jersey (35646 bytes)
    8: Nickname = The Garden State |
    11: Governor = [[Richard Codey]] (acting)|
    13: OfficialLang = ''None defined'' |
    21: DensityRank = 1<sup>st</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 438 |
  106. Timeline of invention (28171 bytes)
    3: ...s ambiguity, the date of the first practical, fielded version of the invention is used here.
    60: * [[Odometer]] : [[Ancient Rome|Rome]]: [[Archimedes]]?
    66: ...ntury BC|200s BC]]: Compound [[pulley]]: [[Archimedes]]
    74: * [[1st century]]: [[Rudder|Stern mounted rudder]] in [[History of China|China]]
    83: * [[9th century|800s]]: [[Black powder|Gunpowder]] in [[History of China|China]]
  107. Biography (6028 bytes)
    1: ...ducation, work, relationships and death. It also delves into the emotions of experiencing such events...
    8: ...of some of the earliest biographies in existence, detailing the lives of [[chief]]s, [[kings]], [[trib...
    12: ... The best known of the classical biographies include ''Memorabilia'' by [[Xenophon]], ''Parallel Lives...
    16: ...]s used this historic period to write the first modern biographies. Their subjects were usually restr...
    20: == Modern forms ==
  108. List of people by name: Q (4474 bytes)
    8: ...Al Qadhafi|Qadhafi, Moammar]], Libyan military leader
    20: *[[Dennis Quaid|Quaid, Dennis]], actor
    23: ...Quant|Quant, Mary]], (born 1934), British fashion designer
    28: ...819 - 1899), German-born, London-based rare books dealer
    35: ...ayle, (1947-), US politician and former Vice President
  109. List of people by name: Y (12717 bytes)
    7: *[[Alexander Nikolaevich Yakovlev|Yakovlev, Alexander Nikolaevich]] (born 1923)
    8: *[[Alexander Sergeyevich Yakovlev|Yakovlev, Alexander Sergeyevich]] (1906-1989)
    11: *[[Yakubu Gowon]] (born 1934), military leader of [[Nigeria]]
    12: *[[Alexander Yakushev|Yakushev, Alexander]], ice hockey player
    37: ..., Yury]], (born 1942), Russian politician, former deputy prime minister and CIS executive secretary
  110. American Psycho (168 bytes)
    3: ...out a young [[Manhattan]]ite [[serial killer]]. A film adaptation was released in [[2000]].
  111. Alexander the Great (42049 bytes)
    2: ...erTheGreat_Bust.jpg|thumb|right|[[Bust]] of Alexander III in the [[British Museum]].]]
    4: ... as the [[Middle-Persian]] literature as '''Alexander the Cursed''' due to his burning of the Persian ...
    6: ...ady during his lifetime, and especially after his death, his exploits inspired a literary tradition in...
    9: ...[Aristotle]] was Alexander's tutor; he gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature a...
    11: ...racles]] through [[Caranus]] and his mother descended from [[Aeacus]] through [[Neoptolemus]] and [[Ac...
  112. Dinosaur (35804 bytes)
    2: ...> [[United States Department of the Interior|U.S. Department of the Interior]]}}
    9: ...ion_subdivision | color = pink | plural_taxon = Orders}}
    17: ...rd_flying.jpg |thumb|300px|left|Tenontosaurus and deinonych]]
    18: ...he [[media]]. The term is also used informally to describe any prehistoric reptile, like the [[pelycos...
    20: ...ww.ucmp.berkeley.edu/diapsids/avians.html]. The widespread application of [[cladistics]], which rigoro...
  113. Roaring Twenties (28131 bytes)
    1: ...onomic boom|boom]] and accelerated [[consumer]] [[demand]] and aspirations, coupled with significant c...
    3: ...the second half of this decade was termed "The Golden Twenties". In France and Canada they were also c...
    5: ...s were cultivated in [[jazz]] and [[dancing]], in defiance of the horrors of the First World War, whic...
    8: ... [[1920]]s were setting the stage for the [[Great Depression]] that would dominate the [[1930]]s.
    10: ===Demobilization===
  114. History of the United States (21226 bytes)
    5: ''For details, see the main [[Pre-Colonial America]] artic...
    10: ''For details, see the main [[Colonial America]] article.'...
    12: ... which was distinct from that of its European founders.
    15: ''For details, see the main [[History of the United States...
    17: ...ring this period the United States won its independence from the [[Kingdom of Great Britain]] during t...
  115. Sport (14524 bytes)
    1: ...f these. A sport has physical activity, side by side competition, and a scoring system. The difference...
    3: [[Image:Oly8.jpg|thumb|250px|Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    9: ... of sport throughout history can teach us a great deal about social changes, and about the nature of s...
    11: ... carbon dating. Although there is scant direct evidence of sport from these sources, it is reasonable ...
    12: ...mage:Horse_racing.jpg|thumb|250px|left|Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
  116. Asteroid (24334 bytes)
    1: ...nd of the asteroid across the gouge on its underside and toward the opposite end. Features as small as...
    3: == Definition ==
    4: ...p://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1840AN.....17...81E&amp;db_key=AST&amp;high=41e14...
    6: The exact definition of an asteroid is unsettled. The term "mi...
    8: ...[boulder]]-sized or smaller. The distinction is made because asteroids are large enough to survive pas...
  117. List of themed timelines (11300 bytes)
    1: ... in chronological order. They are important in understanding [[history]].
    2: ...ich has entries for each millennium, century, decade and year.
    4: {{listdev}}
    49: ** [[Timeline of Linux development]]
    99: * [[Timeline of underwater technology]]
  118. Art (10740 bytes)
    1: '''Art''', in its broadest meaning, is the expression of creativity or ima...
    3: ...ieve is not art. Additionally, groups, such as acedemia, have a vaguely shared notion of what is, or i...
    5: ...tinctions are the subject of many discussions and debates.
    9: ...g_clipart.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Clipart of Art Student.]]
    34: ...xamples where this meaning proves very broad include [[artifact]], artificial, artifice, [[artillery]]...
  119. List of reference tables (55289 bytes)
    1: ...ary|dictionaries]] and [[encyclopedia]]s (or an index of them, if they're scattered throughout the wor...
    3: It includes listings or tabular information for quick refere...
    7: ...ve come back to this page, paste the javascript code you have copied into your URL window and run it. ...
    9: <!-- [[Wikipedia:Page size]] suggests not to divide lists even large.
    13: ...llpadding=1 cellspacing=0 style="float: right; border-collapse: collapse">
  120. Printmaking (7182 bytes)
    1: ...rately producing one or more [[artist's proof]]s. Depending on the complexity of the process chosen, t...
    3: ... stretched in a frame. Small prints can even be made using the surface of a potato.
    6: ...een-printing]]. Other printmaking techniques include [[chine-coll靝, [[collography]], [[monotyping]],...
    14: ...solid #8888aa;">Artists using this technique include
    24: [[Emil Nolde]],
  121. Watercolor painting (4393 bytes)
    3: ...nting vary, the most common is paper. Others include [[papyrus]], bark papers, [[plastic]]s, [[leather...
    6: ...later. Some of the oldest paper manufactures include [[Fabriano]], Italy, opened in [[1276]], and Arch...
    12: ...ed full-scale cartoons as precursors for tapestry designs.
    21: ...en.jpg|thumb|right|200px|[[Francis Picabia]], ''Ridens'', (c. 1929), gouache and watercolor on cardboa...
    23: The broader term for water-based painting media is ''[[water...
  122. List of inventors (14020 bytes)
    11: *[[Archimedes]], (circa 287 BC-212 BC), [[Greece]]
    12: *[[Manfred von Ardenne]], (1907-1997), [[Germany]]
    14: ...s]],(1927 - June, 1996)of the [[Canada|Canadian]] Department of Agriculture &mdash; instant mashed po...
    19: *[[Robert Baden Powell]]- scouting movement
    22: ... U.S. solar inventor and developer; architectural designer.
  123. Thomas Edison (20653 bytes)
    3: ... and [[businessman]] who developed many important devices. "The Wizard of [[Menlo Park, New Jersey|Men...
    5: ...ompany]], which was a conglomerate of nine major film studios (commonly known as the Edison Trust).
    10: ...ing near Vienna, Ontario. Among them was Samuel Ogden Edison, Jr., a shingle maker, tailor, and tavern...
    12: ...MacKenzie Rebellion]] that sought Canadian independence. The revolt failed and, like his grandfather,...
    14: From [[Port Huron]], Sam Edison moved to [[Detroit]], then [[Peru, Ohio]], and finally to [[Mil...
  124. Carnivorous plant (44834 bytes)
    1: ...e ]]A '''carnivorous plant''' is a [[plant]] that derives some or most of its
    16: *Bladder traps, which suck in prey with a bladder that generates an internal vacuum; and
    22: most [[sundew]]s, whose leaves undergo rapid growth, aiding in the retention and
    27: Pitfall traps have evolved independently on at least four occasions. The simplest pitf...
    29: ...enus, the leaves are quite clearly evolutionarily derived from a simple
  125. Civil rights (27169 bytes)
    1: [[Image:LBJMLK.jpg|thumb|250px|right|President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964.]]
    2: ...o citizens. When those grants were later found inadequate, '''civil rights movements''' emerged as the...
    4: ...odations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or s...
    8: ...nship'. The term [[Human rights]] refers to a broader concept.<br>
    12: ...and laws of those states in which that person resides as a citizen. <br>
  126. History of the United States (1918-1945) (54688 bytes)
    7: ... use of the [[tractor]], so fewer farmers were needed to produce a greater harvest of food.
    9: [[President of the United States|US President]] [[Woodrow Wilson]] campaigned for the U.S. to...
    14: In the [[U.S. presidential election, 1920]] the [[United States Republi...
    16: ...flected by the extension of credit to a dangerous degree, including in the [[Stock Market]], which ros...
    18: ...idely reviled as unmusical noise by much of the older generation). [[Dancing]] was a popular recreatio...
  127. Wyoming (8979 bytes)
    12: Governor = [[Dave Freudenthal]] |
    21: DensityRank = 49<sup>th</sup> |
    22: 2000Density = 1.96 |
    23: AdmittanceOrder = 44<sup>th</sup> |
    26: Latitude = 41&deg;N to 45&deg;N |
  128. Barbecue (24807 bytes)
    1: ...Airpork Crew barbecue team prepares [[pork]] shoulder at the [[Memphis, Tennessee|Memphis]] in May Wor...
    4: ...be cooked in large brick or metal ovens specially designed for that purpose.
    6: ...lling is barbecuing except when it means double-sided frying with something like a [[sandwich toaster]...
    8: ...ich is frowned upon by purists in some areas. The device used for cooking barbecue can usually be used...
    10: ...barbecue" restaurants, but nevertheless many consider this to be a distinct cooking process called smo...
  129. Jupiter (24639 bytes)
    1: ...="margin: 0 0 1em 1em; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;" align="righ...
    4: ...]]<br/><small><font color="white">Click image for description</font></small>
    39: | 1.305 30&deg;<br>(6.09? to [[Sun]]'s equator)
    41: ...e ascending node|Longitude of the<br> ascending node]]
    42: | 100.556 15&deg;
  130. Saturn (planet) (23300 bytes)
    1: ...cing=0 align=right style="margin:0 0 .5em 1em; border-collapse:collapse;" width=280px;
    4: ...]]<br> <small><font color="white">Click image for description</font></small>
    39: | 2.484 46&deg;<br>(5.51? to Sun's equator)
    41: ...e ascending node|Longitude of the<br> ascending node]]
    42: | 113.715 04&deg;
  131. Neptune (planet) (18545 bytes)
    1: ...margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;" align="righ...
    4: ...2]]<br><small><font color="white">Click image for description</font></small>
    47: | 1.769 17&deg;<br>(6.43? to Sun's equator)
    49: ...e ascending node|Longitude of the<br> ascending node]]
    50: | 131.721 69&deg;
  132. Pluto (planet) (26470 bytes)
    1: ...margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;" style="floa...
    10: | [[Clyde Tombaugh|Clyde W. Tombaugh]]
    48: | 17.141 75&deg;<br>(11.88? to Sun's equator)
    50: ...e ascending node|Longitude of the<br> ascending node]]
    51: | 110.303 47&deg;
  133. January 17 (12233 bytes)
    5: ...562]] - [[France]] recognized the [[Huguenot]]s under the [[Edict of St. Germain]].
    7: ...Charles Edward Stuart]], "Bonnie Prince Charlie", defeats a [[House of Hanover|Hanoverian]] army at [[...
    9: ...General [[Daniel Morgan]] defeat British forces under Lieutenant Colonel [[Banastre Tarleton]] at the ...
    11: ...1852]] - [[United Kingdom]] recognizes the independence of the [[Boer]] colonies of the [[Transvaal]].
    13: ...[United Kingdom|British]] force defeats a large [[Dervish]] army at the [[Battle of Abu Klea]] in the ...
  134. January 1 (18244 bytes)
    1: ... which the months are displayed, [[January]] to [[December]]. The first day of the medieval Julian yea...
    12: *[[1673]] - Regular mail delivery begins between New York and Boston.
    15: ...|French]] explorer [[Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier]].
    22: ...[[novel]] ''[[Frankenstein|Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus]]'' is first published.
    25: ... The first claim under the [[Homestead Act]] is made by [[Daniel Freeman]] for a farm in [[Nebraska]]....
  135. January 2 (10888 bytes)
    8: ... [[Moors|Moorish]] stronghold in [[Spain]], surrenders.
    15: ...an]] was announced at a meeting of the [[Acad魩e des Sciences]] in [[Paris]].
    17: *[[1871]] - [[Amadeus I of Spain|Amadeus I]] becomes King of [[Spain]].
    23: ... announces the [[Open Door Policy]] to promote trade with [[China]].
    25: ...Russo-Japanese War]]: The [[Russia]]n fleet surrenders at [[L?ou|Port Arthur]], [[China]].
  136. Skyscraper (12706 bytes)
    3: ...s, but it tends to be applied specifically to residential buildings.
    5: ...hts of stairs, and water pressure could only provide running water to about 50&nbsp;feet (15&nbsp;m).
    7: ...her development essential to practical skyscraper development was the invention of the [[elevator]].
    9: ...[[1931]] for the Field's building. Another contender for the title is the 1892 ten-story [[Wainwright...
    11: ... supported by these skeletal frames. Special consideration must also be given for wind loads.
  137. Meerkat (4260 bytes)
    15: ...] family, it inhabits all parts of the [[Kalahari Desert]] in southern [[Africa]].
    19: ... some sort of singing ceremony they compared to yodeling.
    22: ...y strong venom of the scorpions of the [[Kalahari Desert]].
    24: ...t one month old, and they do so by following an older member of the group who acts as the pup's tutor....
    28: ...Meerkats are burrowing animals, living in large underground networks with multiple entrances which the...
  138. Visual arts (2572 bytes)
    1: ...ry art]]s, and other such classes of artwork. The definition is not strict, and many artistic discipli...
    3: ... as high forms. The movement was at odds with [[modernists]] who sought to withhold the high arts from...
    5: ... arts" is suitably independent of these older, loaded concepts and as such is the preferred term for w...
    7: ...set, but certainly can produce "high art" if considered to be a "visual artist", nomatter the medium.
    13: * [[Design]]
  139. Seismograph (4037 bytes)
    6: ...cord both S and P waves, but those on the other side of the Earth can only record P waves.
    10: ==Design==
    12: ...o the mass, an amplifying device, and a recording device.
    18: A popular modern design uses strain-beam accelerometers constructed a...
    20: ...r amateurs, a PC with a recording sound card provides a computer with an inexpensive analog-to-digital...
  140. Thomas More (15893 bytes)
    2: ... of the [[Church of England]], a decision which ended his political career and led to his [[capital pu...
    5: ...mas would become a "marvellous man". Thomas attended the [[University of Oxford]] for two years, wher...
    7: ...mself incapable of [[celibacy]], More finally decided to marry in [[1505]], but for the rest of his li...
    9: ...her daughter by her previous husband. More provided his daughters with an excellent classical educat...
    12: ...Emperor|Charles V]], More was knighted and made undertreasurer in [[1521]]. As secretary and personal...
  141. Bottlenose Dolphin (16802 bytes)
    1: ...ext of this article, scroll down past the table code. -->
    9: {{Taxobox_familia_entry | taxon = [[Delphinidae]]}}
    16: ...ecies. It inhabits warm and temperate seas worldwide and may be found in all but the [[Arctic Ocean|Ar...
    18: ==Physical description==
    19: ...to very light grey and almost white at the underside. This makes them hard to see both from above and ...
  142. Milwaukee Brewers (8926 bytes)
    7: :'''Founded:''' [[1969]] ([[American League]] expansion)
    11: ... superimposed over a baseball which itself is inside a circle with the word "MILWAUKEE" above and a pa...
    23: ...]] by an ownership group headed by Milwaukee auto dealer [[Bud Selig]]. The team was still in spring t...
    25: ...ered throughout the season. Therefore, it was decided to have a 16-team National League and a 14-team ...
    27: ...e, and had retained a New York firm to handle the deal. In September of 2004, it was announced that t...
  143. Earth Day (8264 bytes)
    1: ...held annually in the (northern) spring, both intended to inspire awareness of and appreciation for the...
    12: ...he Environment in [[1969]], the same year that he designed the [[Earth flag]]. The first ''Earth Day''...
    13: ...e equinox. In [[1975]] the U.S. Congress and President [[Gerald Ford|Ford]] proclaimed and urged obser...
    21: ...udents and selected [[Denis Hayes]] (a Harvard student and Stanford graduate) as coordinator of activi...
    23: ...the time nor resources to organize the 20 million demonstrators and the thousands of schools and local...
  144. Halloween (18290 bytes)
    1: ...rt 3.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Halloween Clipart provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    2: ...[[Scotland|Scots]] and other immigrants brought older versions of the tradition to North America in th...
    4: ... a day of celebration for [[Wicca]]ns and other modern [[pagan]] traditions, though the holiday has lo...
    5: ... clipart 2.jpg|thumb|150px|Halloween Clipart provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    8: ...s the celebration of the harvest and honoring the dead. These traditions were then passed on to the [[...
  145. Culture of Italy (11004 bytes)
    11: ... at [[Monza]]. The beginnings of [[chess theory]] developed in Italy in 16th and 17th centuries.
    17: ...onsider dialects of modern Italian. Examples include [[Milanese]], spoken near the city of [[Milan]], ...
    23: ...aly. The [[Pope]] of the Roman Catholic Faith resides withing Rome in what is now known as the [[Vatic...
    31: ...alian art stretches from the Roman times to the Modern era. Several famous artists are from Italy. It...
    36: ...the Lumi貥 brothers had discovered it. The first film was a few seconds was Pope Leo XIII giving a bles...
  146. Tyrannosaurus rex (20653 bytes)
    1: ...aur_clipart.jpg|150px|thumb|Dinosaur Clipart provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    15: ... the largest to have ever existed. New finds have dethroned it as the largest theropod, but ''T. rex''...
    18: ...ton in [[Wyoming]] in [[1900]]. This skeleton resides in [[London]].
    22: ...eropod, and the serrated teeth, far from being bladelike, are massive and oval in cross-section. Heavy...
    24: ...or of many bones has been hollowed out. This considerably reduced the weight of the skeleton while mai...
  147. Albert Einstein (43065 bytes)
    3: ... and [[physical cosmology|cosmology]]. He was awarded the [[1921]] [[Nobel Prize in Physics|Nobel Priz...
    5: ...or a scientist. In his later years, his fame exceeded that of any other scientist in [[history of scie...
    7: ... day Einstein receives popular recognition unprecedented for a scientist.
    14: ...y was [[Jew]]ish (and non-observant); Albert attended a [[Catholic school|Catholic elementary school]]...
    16: ...ct. Another, more recent, theory about his mental development is that he had [[Asperger's syndrome]], ...
  148. George Eastman (2821 bytes)
    5: ...[[film stock|motion picture film]], used by early filmmakers [[Thomas Edison]], the [[Lumiere Brothers]]...
    9: ...eived a patent for his [[camera]] which used roll film. He coined the phrase "You Press The Button and W...
    11: ...oward Hanson]] to be its first director. Hanson made Eastman's school one of the most prestigious musi...
    13: ... heart with an automatic pistol, leaving a [[suicide note]] that said "My work is done. Why wait?" E...
    15: ...man House International Museum of Photography and Film]] in 1947. On the 100th anniversary of his birth...
  149. Philo Farnsworth (6489 bytes)
    1: ...entor]] credited with the invention of the [[cathode ray tube]] [[television]].
    5: ...ere he worked as a [[sharecropper]]. Young Philo developed an early interest in [[electronics]] after...
    7: ..., California|San Francisco]] Bay area with his bride, Elma G. "Pem" Farnsworth. A local [[philanthrop...
    9: ...lt Lake City to develop Farnsworth's television ideas. He married Elma "Pem" Gardner and moved to L...
    11: ... and manufacture of radio tubes, Philco was persuaded to sever its relationship with Farnsworth in 193...
  150. Underground Railroad (17993 bytes)
    2: ...e '''Underground Railroad''' was a network of clandestine routes by which [[African]] [[slavery|slaves...
    4: ...llion slaves who were to eventually escape. The Underground Railroad has captured public imagination a...
    6: ...ailroadsmall2.jpg|right|400px|thumb|Map of some Underground Railroad routes]]
    10: ...s disseminated the abolitionist viewpoint nationwide.
    14: The Underground Railroad developed its own jargon, which continued the [[rail...
  151. Choreography (872 bytes)
    9: * [[Martial arts film]]
  152. Ice skating (4786 bytes)
    1: ...kating blades|parabolic]]) blade-like devices moulded into special [[boot]]s (or, more primitively, wi...
    3: ...ld's longest (about 8 kilometres long) is the [[Rideau Canal]] located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    8: ...to the feet. The blades were polished oxen or reindeer bones. Skates were originally used for transpor...
    12: ... They can also create momentum by pushing the blade against the curved track which it cuts into the i...
    14: ...s that the greater the pressure exerted by the blade, the slipperier the surface of the ice will becom...
  153. Florence (11538 bytes)
    3: ...]an trade and finance, the city is sometimes considered the birthplace of the [[Italian Renaissance]]....
    17: Florence's recorded history began with the establishment in [[59 BC]...
    19: ...Alighieri]]. This factional strife was later recorded by the White Guelph [[Dino Compagni]] in his [[C...
    21: ...ing an anti-aristocratic movement, led by [[Giano della Bella]], that resulted in a set of laws called...
    23: ...reafter succeeded by Cosimo's grandson, [[Lorenzo de%27 Medici|Lorenzo]] in 1469. Lorenzo was a great ...
  154. Italy (17022 bytes)
    3: The independent countries of [[San Marino]] and the [[Vatican C...
    7: ...ackground: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"
    10: {| border=0 cellpadding=2 cellspacing=0 style="background:...
    13: | width="130px"| ([[Flag of Italy|In Detail]])
    24: |'''[[President of Italy|President]]''' || [[Carlo Azeglio Ciampi]]
  155. Venice (22017 bytes)
    2: ...ant center of commerce (especially the [[spice trade]]) and [[art]] in the [[Renaissance]].
    6: ... Its strategic position at head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost invuln...
    8: ... Venice were laid: the [[Venetian Arsenal]] was under construction in 1104; Venice wrested control of ...
    10: ...enetian sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders.
    12: ...stablished the [[Latin Empire]]. Considerable plunder was brought back to Venice, including the [[Mark...
  156. Drama (12658 bytes)
    1: ...eant to be read rather than staged; examples include the plays of [[Seneca]], ''[[Manfred]]'' by [[Geo...
    3: ...dians applied it to the plays they wrote; [[Euripides]] is portrayed in the [[Acharnians]] of [[Aristo...
    7: ... drama as an umbrella, with all of its subforms underneath it.
    13: ... another character or situation gives a greater understanding of what is happening around us.
    15: ...about how hard it must be to live alone. They broadened their own perceptions of the world. This all o...
  157. Elephant (13277 bytes)
    7: {{Taxobox_ordo_entry | taxon = [[Proboscidea]]}}
    17: * ''[[Deinotherium]]'' (extinct)
    21: ...mily]] in the [[order (biology)|order]] [[Proboscidea]]. '''Elephantidae''' has three living [[species...
    23: ...as 60 to 70 years. The largest elephant ever recorded was a male shot in [[Angola]] in 1974, weighing ...
    29: ... and can be used as a snorkel when wading through deep water.
  158. Gorilla (6336 bytes)
    2: ...illa_2.jpg|200px]] | caption = Gorilla.Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clipar...
    21: ...dash;13 years, sometimes sooner if they assume leadership early. Lifespan is between 30&ndash;50 years...
    22: ...e longevity record of 54 years at the time of his death.
    24: ...e [[habitat destruction]] and the [[bushmeat]] trade.
    29: ...n, making all the decisions, mediating conflicts, determining the movements of the group, leading the ...
  159. Olympia (2033 bytes)
    14: ...poration producing calculators, typewriters, shredders and other office machines.
    16: *''[[Olympia (film)|Olympia]]'', a [[1938]] film by [[Leni Riefenstahl]] documenting the Berlin-ho...
    19: ...ympias|Olympia of Epirus]], the mother of [[Alexander the Great]].
    23: ...useum ship]] in [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|Philadelphia PA]].
    25: ...[[football]] [[stadium]] in [[Helsingborg]], [[Sweden]], the home of [[Helsingborgs IF]].
  160. San Francisco, California (55022 bytes)
    12: leader_title = [[Mayor]] |
    13: leader_name = [[Gavin Newsom]] |
    14: area_magnitude = 1 E8 |
    21: population_density = 6958.45 |
    26: latitude = 37&deg;46' N |
  161. Bill Clinton (59225 bytes)
    1: {{Infobox President | name=William Jefferson Clinton
    4: | order=42nd President
    7: | preceded=[[George H. W. Bush]]
    8: | succeeded=[[George W. Bush]]
    11: | dead=alive
  162. Ronald Reagan (52721 bytes)
    1: {{Infobox President | name=Ronald W. Reagan
    4: | order=40th President
    7: | preceded=[[Jimmy Carter]]
    8: | succeeded=[[George H.W. Bush]]
    11: | dead= dead
  163. National Football League (30340 bytes)
    8: ... and lasted through [[Christmas]] week. However, declining television ratings on Labor Day have pushe...
    13: ...argin: 0 0 1em 1em; border: 1px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse;">
    14: <tr><th bgcolor="#efefef" colspan="4" style="border-bottom:1px solid gray;">[[American Football Conf...
    16: ...ore Ravens]]</td><td>[[Houston Texans]]</td><td>[[Denver Broncos]]</td></tr>
    18: ...<td>[[Jacksonville Jaguars]]</td><td>[[Oakland Raiders]]</td></tr>
  164. Performing arts (1198 bytes)
    1: The '''performing arts''' include [[theater]], [[film|motion pictures]], [[drama]], [[comedy]], [[music...
    5: ...n referred to as a ''plastic art'' during the [[Modern dance]] era.
  165. Charles Lindbergh (11557 bytes)
    6: ...Michigan|Detroit]], [[Michigan]], the son of [[Sweden|Swedish]] immigrants. He grew up in [[Little Fal...
    11: ...[NC-4]] in 1919, with the first non-stop flight made by [[Alcock and Brown]] later that same year.
    13: ... voice on behalf of aviation activities until his death. He served on a variety of national and intern...
    15: ...onsumption. These innovations are the basis of modern intercontinental air travel.
    17: {{multi-video start}}
  166. Charles Kingsford Smith (4894 bytes)
    4: ... [[1917]]. For his services in battle, he was awarded the [[Military Cross]].
    6: ...ic flight). The [[Australia]]n film "''[[Smithy (film)|Smithy]]''" is based on Charles Kingsford Smith ...
    10: ...thern Cross''. The aircraft did not arrive at its destination. Eighteen months later, wreckage from th...
    12: ...]] in his honour. A federal electorate, for the federal parliament of Australia, which encompasses the...
    17: ...Kingsford Smith The Pioneers - Aviation and Aeromodelling] -
  167. Wright brothers (19926 bytes)
    1: [[Image:Wrightflyer.jpg|thumb|200px|First flight, December 17, 1903.]]
    5: ... 30]], [[1912]]), are generally credited with the design and construction of the first practical [[aer...
    10: ...ncreased power) for taking off into the air. They developed three-axis control and established princip...
    12: ...o hundred different wing shapes in it, eventually devising their own tables relating air pressure to w...
    14: ...ether, and their contributions to the aeroplane's development are inseparable.
  168. Helicopter (20080 bytes)
    1: ...b>fixed-wing aircraft</b>. The word helicopter is derived from the [[Greek language|Greek]] words ''he...
    3: ...] Company (USA) [[Robinson R44|R44]], a four seat development of the [[Robinson R22|R22]].]]
    5: ...ject only to refuelling facilities and load/altitude limitations, a helicopter can travel to any locat...
    9: ...awkwardly shaped items), or as a mount for still, film or television cameras.
    13: ...ry AD]] book in China that described some of the ideas in a rotary wing aircraft.
  169. Steamboat (11603 bytes)
    2: ...m a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. Right: detail of a steamer]]
    3: ...erley'']] leaving [[Dunoon]] on the [[Firth of Clyde]].]]
    13: ==Early development==
    15: ... boatmen took exception to the threat to their trade, and smashed it up.
    17: ...t. The boat sank, and while he made an improved model he does not seem to have had much success, thoug...
  170. Adolf Hitler (51456 bytes)
    7: dead=dead |
    8: date_of_death = [[30 April]] [[1945]] |
    9: place_of_death = [[Berlin]], [[Germany]]
    11: ...[[Germany]] from [[1933]] to his death. He was leader of the [[National Socialist German Workers Party...
    13: ...eople, including 6 million [[Jew]]s, in a [[genocide]] now known as [[the Holocaust]].
  171. Pirate Ship (44502 bytes)
    1: ...rm has been used to refer to raids across land borders by non-state actors. Piracy should be distingu...
    3: == Definition ==
    4: ...09-04-09 |accessdate=2009-04-09 |publisher=[[Open Democracy]]}}</ref>
    10: ...liament/2587/trade.html Phoenician Economy and Trade].</ref> By the 1st century BC, there were pirate ...
    12: ...ued and captured the pirates, and had them put to death.
  172. Pirate (23151 bytes)
    2: A '''pirate''' is one who [[Robbery|robs]] or plunders at sea without a commission from a recognised [...
    4: ...ains a significant problem (with estimated worldwide losses of $13 to $16 billion [[United_States_doll...
    8: ...neer]]s'''. The word comes from ''boucan'', a wooden frame used for cooking meat (called a ''[[barbec...
    10: ... known as '''kapers''' or '''vrijbuiters''' ("plunderers"), the latter combining the words ''vrij'' me...
    14: ...urkish '''''Korsan''''', which seems to have been derived from the European word, which in turn comes ...
  173. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (8624 bytes)
    2: ...entific and medical references to him are found under this spelling.
    6: ...ute of Martinus Herman van Doorn]]. He later attended [[Utrecht Technical School]], from which he was ...
    8: In [[1865]], he attended the [[Utrecht University|University of Utrecht]]...
    12: ...nd in [[1871]] became a [[professor]] at the [[Academy of Agriculture]] at [[Hohenheim]], [[Württembe...
    16: ... cardboard screen painted with barium platinocyanide when it was placed close to the aluminium window....
  174. Cabeza de Vaca (4807 bytes)
    1: '''Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca''' (c. [[1490]] &ndash; c. [[1559]]) was an ...
    3: ...r's service to the King, and regrets that his own deeds could not be as great, due to forces beyond hi...
    5: ...ave [[Estevanico]], Andres de Dorantes and Alonso del Castillo Maldonado were the only survivors of th...
    7: ... and jealously refused to give his countrymen any details of the country that might prepare them for t...
    9: ...with his earlier ''La Relación'' and published under the title ''Comentarios'' (Commentary).
  175. Hernan Cortes (17441 bytes)
    2: ...marqués del Valle de Oaxaca''' ([[1485]]&ndash;[[December 2]], [[1547]]) was the [[conquistador]] who...
    5: ...o]], who later conquered the [[Inca]] empire of modern-day [[Peru]] (not to be confused with another F...
    10: ...ting the indigenous [[Guanches]]) but would prove devastating in the New World.
    12: ... the west. Governor Velázquez forbade him to invade the mainland (a privilege he reserved for himself...
    14: ==Cartas de Relacion==
  176. Photography (22696 bytes)
    2: ...rough [[mechanical]], [[chemical]] or [[digital]] devices commonly known as [[camera]]s.
    4: ==Image forming devices==
    5: ...rge|electrical charges]] rather than photographic film, hence the term [[electrophotography]]. The [[ray...
    7: ...a to expose the light recording material (usually film) to light. After processing, this produces an im...
    9: The controls include:
  177. Digital photography (33923 bytes)
    4: ...ther devices, such as [[mobile phone]]s, now include digital photography features.
    10: * [[charge-coupled device]] (CCD)
    18: ...onsumer digital cameras became available for considerably lower prices. (The [[Ritz Dakota Digital]] i...
    22: ...eb cam]]s at the lowest-end, a [[digital memory]] device (usually [[flash memory]]; [[floppy disk]]s a...
    24: ...can take still photographs, and store them on [[videotape]] or on flash memory cards.
  178. Aperture (3151 bytes)
    2: ... speed (ISO), this will regulate the photograph's degree of [[exposure (photography)|exposure]] to lig...
    6: ...ture size increases the [[depth of field]], which describes the extent to which subject matter lying c...
    8: ...ilm and therefore reduce the exposure time of the film. These lenses are favored especially by photojour...
    12: ...5-300mm, a physically bigger diaphragm will be needed at 300mm than at 75mm, but the aperture will rem...
  179. Film speed (5065 bytes)
    1: ...ne with a shorter exposure and is called a ''fast film''.
    4: ...inear scale and a logarithmic scale for measuring film speed.
    6: ...wice as sensitive as a film rated ISO&nbsp;100/21&deg;.
    8: ...re generally rated between 100/21&deg; and 800/30&deg;, inclusive.
    10: The following table shows the correspondence between these scales:
  180. Depth of field (8291 bytes)
    1: ..._dof.jpg|thumb|260px|An example of fairly shallow depth of field]]
    2: ... focus, but focus falls off gradually on either side of that distance, so there is a region in which t...
    4: ...actual degree of error in relation to the area of film exposed.
    6: ... nearer will produce the image of a disk whose border is known as "[[circle of confusion]]." The diame...
    8: ...ars sharp while the areas in front and behind the depth of field appear blurry.]]
  181. Camera (4262 bytes)
    1: ...m functioned much as the internal workings of a modern photographic camera, except there was no way at...
    5: ...d be slower (longer time spent open) to allow the film to capture what little light is present.
    7: ...meras this is indicated by symbols (head-and-shoulders; two people standing upright; one tree; mountai...
    9: ...objective lens and a focusing lens unit (usually identical to the objective lens) in a parallel body f...
    11: ...e or [[random Access Memory|computer memory]] inside the camera for later playback or [[digital image ...
  182. Pinhole camera (6994 bytes)
    1: ...e [[aperture]] has to be a small pinhole on the order of .020 inches or less. The [[shutter]] of a pi...
    4: ...cura]]), or can expose film or a [[charge coupled device]] (CCD). Pinhole cameras with CCDs are somet...
    8: ...f the hole for light coming in at other than a 90 degree angle.
    10: ...hole is perfectly round (to minimise any higher-order diffraction effects off irregularites), and in a...
    12: ...e & rotating the pin as it glides in and out in order to produce a smooth circular hole.
  183. March 17 (9666 bytes)
    6: ...[45 BC]] - In his last victory, [[Julius Caesar]] defeats the [[Pompey|Pompeian]] forces of [[Titus La...
    11: ...], with [[Napoleon I of France|Napoleon]] as president, becomes the [[Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)|Ki...
    16: ...Gogh]] paintings in [[Paris]], 11 years after his death, creates a sensation.
    21: ...rt]] is officially opened by President [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt|Franklin D. Roosevelt]].
    28: ...s with suppressing information related to the incident.
  184. March 20 (10075 bytes)
    9: *[[1739]] &ndash; [[Nadir Shah]] occupies [[Delhi]] in [[India]] and sacks the city, stealing th...
    10: ..."Great Fire" of [[Boston, Massachusetts |Boston]] destroys 349 buildings.
    16: ...Aleister Crowley]] invokes [[Horus]] in Egypt and declares the start of the New Aeon known as the Aeon...
    17: ...er of the Chinese nationalist party (KMT), is wounded in an assassination attempt and dies 2 days late...
    24: *[[1956]] &ndash; [[Tunisia]] gains independence from [[France]].
  185. March 21 (10586 bytes)
    6: *[[1788]] - A [[fire]] destroys 856 buildings in [[New Orleans]] and leaves...
    7: ...]] with a temporary [[Papal Tiara|papal tiara]] made of [[papier-m⣨靝.
    9: *[[1804]] - [[Napoleonic code|Code Napol鯮]] was adopted as [[France|French]] [[civ...
    19: ...en fire on a group of unarmed black South African demonstrators, killing 69 and wounding 180
    20: *[[1963]] - [[Alcatraz]], a federal [[penitentiary]] on an island in [[San Francis...
  186. March 22 (9294 bytes)
    11: ... IV Adolf of Sweden|Gustav IV Adolf]] to the [[Sweden|Swedish]] throne.
    12: ...871]] - In [[North Carolina]], [[William Woods Holden]] becomes the first governor of a [[U.S. state]]...
    16: *[[1933]] - President [[Franklin Delano Roosevelt]] signs into law a bill legalizing ...
    19: ...]: In the [[Mediterranean sea]], [[Regia Marina]] defeats [[Royal Navy]] in the [[Second Battle of Sir...
    20: *[[1945]] - The [[Arab League]] is founded when a charter is adopted in [[Cairo]], [[Egypt]...
  187. March 23 (10340 bytes)
    7: ...ar of Religion]] in [[France]]. Again [[Catherine de Medici]] and [[Charles IX of France]] make substa...
    9: ...his famous speech - "[[give me liberty or give me death]]" at St. John's Church in [[Richmond, Virgini...
    10: ...word, then [[strangle]]d, and finally trampled to death in his bedroom at St. Michael Palace.
    12: *[[1839]] - First recorded use of "[[Okay|OK]]" as an abbreviation for "oll...
    13: ...din]], [[New Zealand]]. [[Otago]] province is founded.
  188. Phoenix, Arizona (34271 bytes)
    5: ... is now the fifth-largest city, surpassing [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]] with 1.5 million people
    24: founded = [[May 4]], [[1868]] |
    33: density = 1,074|
    46: ...aced them; or, they may be the ancestors of the modern Pima Indians who now live on the [[Salt River]]...
    49: ...es northwest of a similar farming community at Hayden's Ferry, which would become [[Tempe, Arizona|Tem...
  189. Atlanta, Georgia (39442 bytes)
    15: |popdensity=1,221
    17: |latitude=33&deg;65' N
    18: |longitude=84&deg;42&prime; W
    22: ...lt, Atlanta is a common case study for college students who study Urban Geography around the globe. ...
    24: ...19th century]] as a railroad hub. It was largely destroyed by Union forces during the [[American Civi...
  190. Honolulu, Hawaii (19495 bytes)
    8: founded = |
    17: density = 1,674.4|
    29: ...&deg;C) only rarely with lows in the 50's ?F (15 &deg;C) occurring once or twice a year.
    35: ... Head, Hawaii|Diamond Head]], [[Koko Head]] (includes [[Hanauma Bay]]), Koko Crater, Salt Lake, and &#...
    46: ...ecame the center of commerce in the islands, with descendants of American missionaries establishing th...
  191. Boston, Massachusetts (36071 bytes)
    9: founded = [[September 17]], [[1630]] |
    11: ...Thomas Menino]] ([[United_States_Democratic_Party|Dem]]) |
    18: density = 4,696.9|
    25: ...tened from [[Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.|Oliver Wendell Holmes]]' phrase ''The Hub of the Universe''), ...
    27: ...has a population of approximately 5.8 million residents. [[Greater Boston]] is one of the top-ten larg...
  192. Jackson, Mississippi (21073 bytes)
    11: founded = |
    20: density = 678.2|
    29: .... The state legislature first met in Jackson on [[December 23]], 1822.
    33: ...s would later spark growth of the city in the decades after the [[American Civil War]].
    34: ...:Mississippi_state_map.jpg|thumb|250px|Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clipar...
  193. Columbus, Ohio (27104 bytes)
    6: ...y]]. It also extends into [[Delaware County, Ohio|Delaware]] and [[Fairfield County, Ohio|Fairfield]] ...
    19: founded = |
    20: ... County, Ohio|Franklin]], [[Delaware County, Ohio|Delaware]],<br> and [[Fairfield County, Ohio|Fairfie...
    28: density = 1,306.4|
    35: ...] (CCAD), [[Otterbein College]] in Westerville, [[DeVry University]], [[Ohio Dominican University]], a...
  194. Salt Lake City, Utah (41550 bytes)
    2: ...City-[[Ogden, Utah|Ogden]] [[metropolitan area]], defined as [[Salt Lake County, Utah|Salt Lake]], [[D...
    4: ...lake's shore by [[marsh]]es and [[mudflat]]s. Residents are known as "[[List of famous Salt Lakers|Sal...
    5: [[Image:Utah_state_map.jpg|thumb|250px|Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clipar...
    6: ...own as the "Crossroads of the West". The city has developed a strong tourism industry and was host to ...
    8: ... The current mayor of Salt Lake City is [[Rocky Anderson]].
  195. American comic book (14771 bytes)
    8: ...on of [[Rodolphe T?er|Rodolphe T?er's]] "Histoire de M. Vieux Bois".
    10: ==[[Golden Age of comic books|The Golden Age]]==
    13: Comic books developed from earlier [[comic strip]]s that had beg...
    15: ...mic books had begun appearing in the previous decade. The [[Belgium|Belgian]] comic book "[[Tintin]] ...
    17: ... and the content was heavy on [[adventure]] and [[detective fiction]].
  196. List of hobbies (5016 bytes)
    17: * [[Embroidery]]
    41: * Classic [[videogame]]s
    54: * [[Scale model]]s
    62: * [[3D computer graphics]] design
    63: * [[Animation]] design
  197. Festival (832 bytes)
    2: ...lorado]] is a typical festival. The word ''fest'' derives from the [[German language]]. See [[list of ...
    6: *'''[[Film festival]]'''
    17: *[http://FestivalsandEvents.com/ US Festivals and Events]
  198. List of festivals (6550 bytes)
    6: *[[World Festival of Youth and Students]]
    41: ===[[Denmark]]===
    42: *[[Roskilde Festival]]
    48: *[[Festival de Marseille]],
    49: *[[Festival International du Film]], [[Cannes]],
  199. Mahatma Gandhi (35350 bytes)
    8: dead=dead|
    9: date_of_death=[[January 30]], [[1948]] |
    10: place_of_death=[[New Delhi]], [[India]]
    13: ...who brought the cause of [[India|India's]] independence from [[British India|British colonial rule]] t...
    15: ... truth" or "pursuit of truth", has inspired other democratic activists, including [[Martin Luther King...
  200. July 24 (8660 bytes)
    5: ...] - [[Mary I of Scotland|Mary Queen of Scots]] is deposed and replaced by her 1 year old son [[King Ja...
    6: *[[1701]] - [[Detroit, Michigan]] founded.
    7: ... [[Jacob Brown]]'s [[United States|American]] invaders.
    10: ...te]] General [[Jubal Anderson Early|Jubal Early]] defeats [[United States|Union]] troops led by Genera...
    13: ...blishes first account of [[Paul Bunyan]] in the [[Detroit News]].
  201. Rome (33048 bytes)
    2: ...ackground: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;"
    6: {| border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0"
    12: |align="center" width="140px"|City [[Seal (device)|seal]]
    15: |align="center" colspan=2 style="border-bottom:3px solid gray;"|<small>City [[motto]]: '...
    17: |Founded|| [[21 April]][[753 BC]] mythical,<br> [[1st mil...
  202. Acting (1700 bytes)
    1: ...ses or augments aspects of their personality in order to reveal the actions and motivations of the [[f...
    3: ... colleges to develop these skills, which have a wide range of different artistic philosophies and proc...
    5: Modern pioneers in the area of acting have included [[Konstantin Stanislavski]], [[Lee Strasberg]], ...
    7: For history and other detail, see [[actor]].
  203. Cuban Missile Crisis (13015 bytes)
    1: ... days until [[November 20]], [[1962]]. It is regarded as the moment when the [[Cold War]] was closest ...
    3: ==Prelude==
    5: ...r firepower. On taking office in 1961, Kennedy ordered that the Jupiter missiles be removed.
    7: ...stem was oriented towards the USSR and would provide little warning of a launch from Cuba.
    9: ...nedy]], [[Dean Rusk]] and [[Robert McNamara]] decided that the Soviets would not try such a thing. Ke...
  204. National anthem (4891 bytes)
    3: ...h other commonly sung [[patriotic songs]]. The oldest song purporting to be a national anthem is the ...
    5: ...aditions, most notably [[Japan]] (which has the oldest anthem in the world, [[Kimigayo]]), [[Iran]], [...
    11: ...orious during the [[Nazi]] era as "[[Deutschland, Deutschland ?lles]]."
    13: ... the lyrics both for the Indian and for the Bangladeshi national anthems.
    15: ...] before a [[play]] or in a [[cinema]] before a [[film|movie]]. Many [[television station]]s have adapt...
  205. The Star-Spangled Banner (15265 bytes)
    1: ...ircumstances of its writing. Of the five copies made, two are known to still exist.]]
    2: ...ts rendering.bmp|200px|thumb|right|An artist's rendering of the battle at [[Fort McHenry]].]]
    6: ...ong ''[[To Anacreon in Heaven]]'', but was only made the national anthem by a [[Congress of the United...
    9: ...ey and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Amer...
    11: ...rd HMS ''Surprise'', and later back onto the ''Minden'' sloop, waiting behind the British fleet. On [[...
  206. Wolf (22358 bytes)
    15: ...omestic [[dog]]. Wolves once had an almost worldwide distribution, but are now limited primarily to [[...
    23: ...n_Wolf.jpg|thumb|left|250px|Grey Wolf. Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    25: ...t is not present on dogs. The wolf usually has golden-yellow eyes, longer legs, larger [[paw]]s and mo...
    27: ... over great distances and the wide paws make sure deep snow hampers them less than their prey.
    29: ...o repel water and dirt and a thick [[wool]]ly ''undercoat'' to keep it warm. The wolf changes coat two...
  207. Literature (25676 bytes)
    1: ...dubious, but it does not interfere with the above definition.
    5: ...tion of the United States]], all fall within this definition of a kind of literature.
    9: ...re conservative interpreters of the concept would demand that the text have a physical form, usually o...
    11: ...ience fiction) may also become excluded from consideration as "literature".
    15: ...gy|psychological]] insight in the delineation and development of character.
  208. Thylacine (4846 bytes)
    22: ...thumb|250px|left|Tasmanian Wolf Illustration provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    23: ...hylacine was widespread on the mainland. After traders from the islands to the north of the continent ...
    25: ...hylacine [[spine (anatomy)|spine]] undergoes a sudden transition about halfway along the body.
    29: ...er 6,[[1936]]. A short black and white film was made of the captive pacing back and forth in its enclo...
    35: ...tewart Malcolm. No successful claims have been made.
  209. Atlantis (41399 bytes)
    2: ...own time. Plato did mention it was somewhere outside the [[Pillars of Hercules]] (i.e. the [[Straits o...
    7: ...m his grandfather also named Critias, son of Dropides.
    12: ...intended to illustrate Plato's philosophy of the ideal government. Plato's account purports to be base...
    14: ... of [[Gades]] (Greek, [[Eumelus]]; Atlantean, [[Gadeirus]]).
    17: ... come from the continent beyond the islands, in order to offer sacrifice to the gods of the ocean.
  210. Tower of Babel (13111 bytes)
    1: ...x|"The Tower of Babel" by [[Pieter Brueghel the Elder]]]]
    2: ...s a [[tower]] built by a united [[human]]ity in order to reach the [[heaven]]s. To prevent the project...
    8: ...here confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. So the LORD scattered...
    10: === Judeo-Christian analysis ===
    11: ...called "[[Babel]]", because there [[YHWH]] confounded the one language of Earth.
  211. Martin Luther (43050 bytes)
    5: ...ge_caption= Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) |
    8: dead=dead|
    9: date_of_death=[[18 February]], [[1546]] |
    10: place_of_death=Eisleben, Germany
    12: ...hings inspired the [[Protestant Reformation]] and deeply influenced the [[doctrine]]s of [[Lutheran]],...
  212. Cherokee (38956 bytes)
    14: <small>(f) = federally recognized <br></small>
    25: ...250,000 [[Native Americans in the United States|Federally recognized]] Cherokees, have headquarters in...
    29: ...ho'' dialect, since [[Hernando de Soto (explorer)|de Soto]] was [[Extremaduran language|Extremaduran]]...
    33: ...selves which means approximately this. However, modern Cherokee call themselves Cherokee, or Tsalagi.
    39: ...red his great work for the Cherokee people was handed down through the [[Ah-ni-ku-ta-ni]], an ancient ...
  213. Buffalo soldier (5141 bytes)
    1: ...Leavenworth]], [[Kansas]]. The term came to include the 9th Cavalry and the 24th and 25th Infantry, a...
    10: ...e units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by white officers such as [[Benjamin Grierson]],...
    14: After the Indian Wars ended in the [[1890s]] the regiments continued to serv...
    17: ...were involved in racial disturbances in [[Rio Grande City, Texas]] in [[1899]], [[Brownsville, Texas]]...
    19: ...t experienced non-commissioned officers were provided to other segregated black units for combat servi...
  214. Leone Battista Alberti (5967 bytes)
    1: ...eral [[Renaissance]] [[polymath]] . His life was described in [[Giorgio Vasari]]'s ''Vite''. In [[Ita...
    8: Alberti made a variety of contributions to several fields:
    10: ...leschi]]. He also wrote works on [[sculpture]], ''De Statua''.
    11: ...tieth year, entitled ''Philodoxius,'' would later deceive the younger [[Aldus Manutius]], who edited a...
    12: ...se typographic qualities and illustrations have made it legendary as one of the most beautiful books e...
  215. Troy (22846 bytes)
    1: ...9th century BC|9th]] century BC, but containing older material (''Iliad'' means "about Ilion").
    2: ...0px|"Trojan Horse" at the site of Troy|Image provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clipar...
    3: ...st [[Turkey]], southwest of the [[Dardanelles]] under [[Mount Ida, Phrygia|Mount Ida]].
    5: ...til the establishment of [[Constantinople]], and declined gradually during [[Byzantine Empire|Byzanti...
    7: ...tity is disputed, the site has been successfully identified with the city called '''''Wilusa''''' in [...
  216. Antalya (20816 bytes)
    3: ...steep cliff, Antalya is a picturesque city surrounded by mountains, forests, mediterranean sea and man...
    5: ...Turkish]] and [[ethnic Greek|Greek]] houses are under protection, is the most popular center in Antaly...
    7: ...prominent sites accessible by daily tours are [[Side]], [[Perga]], [[Manavgat]] and [[Alanya]]. Ancien...
    10: ...aid "This must be 'Heaven' " and King Attalos founded the city giving it the name "Attaleia" ([[Greek ...
    14: Evidence of human habitation dating back over 200 000 y...
  217. Cell (29541 bytes)
    3: The [[cell theory]], first developed in the [[19th century]], states that all [...
    15: ...nergy stored in organic molecules. This energy is derived from [[metabolic pathway]]s.
    21: ...mes (''dark blue''). The drawing on the ''right'' demonstrates how bacterial DNA is housed in a struct...
    23: ...ms) that function and survive more or less independently, through ''colonial'' forms with cells living...
    34: ...these primary components of the cell then briefly describe their function.
  218. Christmas (40060 bytes)
    2: ...the [[Christian calendar]], usually observed on [[December 25]], which celebrates the birth of [[Jesus...
    3: ...as well as the [[historicity of Jesus]] are still debated.
    5: ...aditions are still rich and varied, despite the widespread influence of [[American]] and [[United King...
    7: "Christmas" is a contraction of "Christ's Mass", derived from the Old English ''Cristes m泳e''. It ...
    11: The story of Christ's birth has been handed down for centuries, based primarily on the Chris...
  219. Guinea pig (19730 bytes)
    7: {{Taxobox_ordo_entry | taxon = [[Rodentia]]}}
    22: ...lution]]ary offshoot, and therefore a different order.
    24: Despite their common name, the animals are not [[pig...
    27: ...red usually by roasting; the general opinion considers them similar to rabbit in taste. They also play...
    29: ...ead relative to the body, a stout neck, and a rounded rump with no tail of any consequence.
  220. Cerium (12377 bytes)
    2: {| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: {| align="center" border="0"
    18: | [[Lanthanide]]s
    23: | [[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]]
    40: | [[van der Waals radius]]
  221. Helium (36603 bytes)
    2: {| width="250" border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: {| align="center" border="0"
    26: | [[Density]]
    35: | 0.95 [[Kelvin|K]] (-272.2 &deg;[[Celsius|C]])
    38: | 4.22 [[Kelvin|K]] (-268.93 &deg;[[Celsius|C]])
  222. Indium (8657 bytes)
    2: {| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: {| align="center" border="0"
    24: | [[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]]
    41: | [[van der Waals radius]]
    50: | [[Oxidation state]]s ([[Oxide]])
  223. Lanthanum (10184 bytes)
    2: <table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: <table align="center" border="0">
    17: ...] </td><td>[[Lanthanide]]s</td></tr>
    21: <td>[[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]] </td>...
    33: <td>[[van der Waals radius]] </td><td>...
  224. Molybdenum (10247 bytes)
    2: {| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: {| align="center" border="0"
    5: ...an="2" align="center"|[[niobium]] &ndash; '''molybdenum''' &ndash; [[technetium]]
    17: | molybdenum, Mo, 42
    25: | [[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]]
  225. Polonium (10219 bytes)
    2: <table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: <table align="center" border="0">
    21: <td>[[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]] </td>...
    33: <td>[[van der Waals radius]] </td><td>...
    39: <td>[[Oxidation state]]s ([[Oxide]]) </td><td>'''4''', 2 ([[amphote...
  226. Rubidium (10211 bytes)
    2: {| border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: {| align="center" border="0"
    23: | [[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]]
    40: | [[van der Waals radius]]
    49: | [[Oxidation state]]s ([[Oxide]])
  227. Thallium (12570 bytes)
    2: <table border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="right...
    4: <table align="center" border="0">
    21: <td>[[Density]], [[Mohs hardness scale|Hardness]] </td>...
    33: <td>[[van der Waals radius]] </td><td>...
    39: <td>[[Oxidation state]]s ([[Oxide]]) </td><td>3,'''1''' (mildly [[B...
  228. Iguassu Falls (7632 bytes)
    1: ... throat from the Brazilian side. Photography provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    3: ...fall]]s of the [[Iguazu River]] located on the border of the [[Brazil]]ian [[States of Brazil|state]] ...
    5: ...], after whom one of the falls in the Argentine side is named.
    6: ...g|left|thumb|350px|Iguazu Falls. Photography provided by [http://classroomclipart.com Classroom Clip A...
    7: ...guaçu National Park]] (Brazil). These parks were designated [[UNESCO]] [[World Heritage Sites]] in [...
  229. Ondes Martenot (2090 bytes)
    2: ...bilities of the instrument were subsequently expanded by the addition of [[Electronic filter|filter]] ...
    4: ...Assise]]'' calls for three. Other composers included [[Pierre Boulez]], [[Edgar Var賥]], [[Darius Mi...
    5: ...]] frequently used it in his scores for [[Gerry Anderson]]'s series. It was also utilized by [[Bryan F...
    7: ...he Thief]]'' (2003) albums. Greenwood uses the Ondes often in his solo effort, the soundtrack to ''[[...
    10: *[http://www.keyboardmuseum.com/pre60/1920/ondes.html Keyboard Museum entry]
  230. Great White Shark (5784 bytes)
    17: ...t eyesight and can see in colour, and have highly-developed behaviors which are only now being researc...
    21: ...female's uterus, hatching there and continuing to develop until they are born, at which point they are...
    26: ...heir mouth (their only tactile organ) in order to determine what kind of object it might be.
    28: Other incidents seem to be cases of mistaken identity, in which a shark ambushes a bather or surfe...
    30: ...o muscle and fat. Accordingly, in nearly all recorded attacks, Great Whites have broken off contact af...
  231. Lemming (3446 bytes)
    6: {{Taxobox_ordo_entry | taxon = [[Rodentia]]}}
    18: ...n, the superfamily [[Muroidea]], which also includes the [[rat]]s, [[mice]], [[hamster]]s, and [[gerb...
    20: ...t also roots and bulbs in some cases. Like many rodents, their incisors grow continuously, allowing th...
    22: ...nd then going their separate ways, but like all rodents they have a high reproductive rate and can bre...
    24: ...r intervals for many years afterwards. ''White Wilderness'' popularized, using staged footage, the myt...
  232. Jack Russell Terrier (11452 bytes)
    2: {| border=1 cellspacing=0 align=right cellpadding=2
    39: ...ttp://www.akc.org/breeds/parson_russell_terrier/index.cfm AKC], [http://www.ankc.aust.com/pjackrus.htm...
    43: |Some kennel clubs consider this <BR>
    46: ... are not always considered to be separate breeds, definitions are still evolving and the naming of the...
    53: ...ed regularly, may exhibit behaviors that are considered aggressive or unmanageable. In America, sever...
  233. Dalmatian (6388 bytes)
    3: {| border=1 cellspacing=0 align=right cellpadding=2
    47: ...st.com/dalmatia.html ANKC], [http://www.canadasguidetodogs.com/dalmatian/dalmatianarticle4.htm CKC]<br...
    52: ... Puppies are born completely white and the spots develop later.
    55: ... companionship or there is a risk they may become depressed. Good with children but because of their p...
    60: ...tian. <!-- really? what art? --> There is some evidence that it originated even before that in [[India...
  234. Mixed-breed dog (14915 bytes)
    3: ...selected from a mixed-breed population. See [[Golden Retriever]] for an example. Further, except for...
    7: ...ed'' often imply mixes of known breeds, sometimes deliberately mated.
    11: ...ate matters, many owners of '''crossbred dogs''' identify them&mdash;often facetiously&mdash;by an inv...
    12: ...in New York City which might previously have been described as ''Shepherd mixes'' are now referred to ...
    15: ...[German Shepherd Dog|German Shepherd]] and a [[Golden Retriever]] does not closely resemble either par...
  235. Newfoundland (dog) (4428 bytes)
    2: {| border=1 cellspacing=0 align=right cellpadding=2
    17: ...e.com/search?q=cache:u7H4I5GDhD4J:www.fci.be/uploaded_files/050gb2002_en.doc+site:www.fci.be+%22N%C2%B...
    20: |[http://www.akc.org/breeds/newfoundland/index.cfm Stds]
    26: |[http://www.canadasguidetodogs.com/workingdogs/newf_std.htm Stds]
    46: ...g)|Landseer]] to be a separate breed; others consider it simply a Newfoundland color variation.
  236. Film (18911 bytes)
    2: [[Image:Film reel and film.jpg|thumb|250px|"Film" refers to the celluloid media on which movies ar...
    4: ...-speaking international community prefer to use ''film'' or "cinema", due to the colloquial nature of th...
    6: ...ception of motion &mdash; a psychological effect identified as [[beta movement]].
    8: ...] or [[subtitle]]s that translate the dialogue. Films are also artifacts created by specific cultures,...
    11: ==History of film==
  237. Nikola Tesla (29894 bytes)
    7: ...e cosmic rays and caused them to operate a motive device.''" - Nikola Tesla; Brooklyn Eagle, July 10th...
    16: ...e [[Second Industrial Revolution]]. After Tesla's demonstration of [[Transmission (telecommunications)...
    18: ...his life to make real these plans, while others made fortunes with his [[invention]]s.
    20: ... His legacy can been seen across [[Modern world|modern civilization]].
    24: |'''Electromechanical devices and principles developed by Nikola Tesla''':
  238. Puppet (11452 bytes)
    1: ...mated figures, with this description, may also be described as puppets, particularly since they are of...
    5: ...ple a coin-operated automata-show or piano-roll sideshow figure). The puppet can interact with other p...
    10: ..., that there should be comedians of an inferior order, charged with the duty of offering continuously ...
    12: ...bes (Greece)|Thebes]] wearing around his body bladders filled with wine and milk, and so arranged that...
    16: ...d of a small stationary case, isolated on every side, in which the stage was closed by doors that open...
  239. Exposure (photography) (2778 bytes)
    1: ...value|exposure value (ev)]]'', with higher values denoting more light.
    3: ... Organization for Standardization (ISO)]]. Faster film requires less exposure and has a higher ISO ratin...
    5: ...ure will be obtained on a sunny day using ISO 125 film, an aperture of [[f-number|f]]/16 and a shutter s...
    7: ... In digital cameras, the photographer can also trade the ISO number against speed and aperture in any ...
    10: ...eristic is known as ''reciprocity failure''. The film manufacturer's data sheets should be consulted to...
  240. Chile (39914 bytes)
    1: ...mountains and the [[Pacific Ocean]]. It shares borders with [[Argentina]] to the east, [[Bolivia]] to ...
    7: native_name = Rep&uacute;blica de Chile |
    17: government_type = [[Republic|Democratic republic]] |
    18: leader_titles = [[President of Chile|President]] |
    19: leader_names = [[Ricardo Lagos]] |
  241. Theodore Roosevelt (35706 bytes)
    1: {{Infobox President | name=Theodore Roosevelt
    4: | order=26th President
    7: | preceded=[[William McKinley]]
    8: | succeeded=[[William Howard Taft]]
    11: | dead=dead
  242. Al Gore (43430 bytes)
    6: ! Order:
    7: | 45th Vice President
    12: ! Preceded by:
    15: ! Succeeded by:
    31: | [[United States Democratic Party|Democrat]]
  243. Medieval History (23198 bytes)
    2: ...eginning of the [[Early Modern]] period that preceded the [[Industrial Revolution]].
    7: ...] flourished in the early '''Middle Ages''': [[Hildesheim]].]]
    8: ...cial senses were unevolved and its technologies undeveloped, compared to the preceding culture.
    10: ...ished, leading to the rise of illiteracy among leadership.
    12: ===A new order===
  244. Culture of Ireland (27885 bytes)
    2: ...is far from monolithic. Many notable cultural divides exist between the rural people and city dwellers...
    8: ...ives in Dublin, the cattle population is of the order of 6.7 million. The total population of humans o...
    12: ...hich sporting rivalries and other forms of local identity are built and most people feel a strong sens...
    16: ...nd Commission]]. One consequence of this is the widely-recognised cultural phenomenon of "land hunger"...
    21: ...res, the first cathedrals, such as the Viking-founded and Norman-rebuilt [[Christchurch Cathedral, Dub...
  245. Culture of Pakistan (6940 bytes)
    3: ...ltan, etc. The North-western part of Pakistan, bordering with Afghanistan, is highly conservative and ...
    8: ...ion that is now Pakistan has in the past been invaded and occupied by many different peoples, includin...
    10: ...state of dereliction which makes their former grandeur more emphatic. Scuplture is dominated by Graeco...
    12: ==Film and television==
    14: ...minant media player in Pakistan. However past decade has seen emergence of several private TV channels...
  246. Culture of Russia (14552 bytes)
    1: ...] and [[Soviet]] rules and under the relgious leadership of the [[Russian Orthodox Church]].
    9: ...paintings in Russia are unique because they are made to help people with prayers instead of idolizing ...
    11: ===Russian avant garde===
    12: {{Main|Russian avant garde}}
    13: ...g|left|Thumb|150px|An example of Russian avant garde art by El Lissitzky in 1919]]
  247. Culture of Spain (17671 bytes)
    4: ...s or nationalities &mdash; even those that least identify themselves as Spanish &mdash; have contribut...
    6: ..., the [[Basque Country]] and [[Catalonia]] have widespread [[nationalism|nationalist]] sentiment. Many...
    8: ...lism, but generally without aspirations to independent statehood and generally with a smaller percenta...
    10: ...panish nationalist feeling, have strong regional identities: [[Cantabria]], [[Asturies]], [[Rioja]], [...
    12: ...of [[Murcia]]. [[Castile]] was the core kingdom under which Spain eventually unified after centuries o...
  248. Culture of Northern Ireland (3146 bytes)
    1: ...he traditions of [[Northern Ireland]] and its resident communities.
    11: *[[Gardens in Northern Ireland]]
    20: ... traditional songs are [[The Sash]] and [[A Londonderry Air]].
    33: *[[Andersonstown News]]
    38: ...inese language|Chinese]] is now the second most widely spoken language in Northern Ireland, with [[Urd...
  249. European-influenced classical music (18917 bytes)
    4: ...000 and 1900. The central norms of this tradition developed between 1550 and 1825 centering on what is...
    8: Musical works are best understood in the context of their place in musical hi...
    14: ... 1815-1910 a period which codified practice, expanded the role of music in cultural life and created i...
    15: * [[Modernism (music) | Modern]], 1905-1975 a period which represented a crisi...
    16: ..., which includes late Romantic, Modern and Post-Modern styles of composition.
  250. Musical genre (24851 bytes)
    1: ...nd a single geographical category will often include a number of different genre.
    3: ...or example, a musician whose work has covered a wide range of genres, wrote in ''Arcana: Musicians on ...
    5: ...mple of this is [[video game music]], which while defined by its media, can also represent its own sty...
    11: ...f this page attempts to do that for a number of widely agreed areas.
    13: ...t and simple, referring to further articles as needed.

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