Oran

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Missing image
Algeria-Oran.png
Map of Algeria showing Oran province

This article is about the city in Algeria. See also Oran, Missouri

Oran (population 700,000) is a city in northwest Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean Sea coast.

Contents

Administration

Oran is the capital of a province (wilaya) of the same name.

History

Oran was founded in the 10th century by Moorish Andalusian traders, but was captured by the Spanish under Cardinal Cisneros in 1509. From 1708 to 1732 and from 1791 to 1831, the city was part of the Ottoman Empire, until it fell to the French in 1831.

During the French colonial rule over Algeria, Oran was the capital of a département of the same name (number 92).

During World War II, Oran was held by Vichy France until it was captured by the Allies in late 1942, during Operation Torch.

In July 1940, the British Royal Navy shelled French warships in the port after they refused to respond to a British ultimatum designed to ensure they would not fall into German hands. The action sealed the hatred of Vichy France for Britain but convinced the world, especially the United States, of the British will to fight on alone against Nazi Germany and its allies.

After the end of the Algerian War of Independence and the resulting exodus of Europeans and Jews to France, Oran lost about half its population.

Oran today

Today, Oran is a major port and a commercial centre, and has a university. The old quarter of Oran has a casbah and an 18th-century mosque.

Culture

The folk music Rai had its beginnings in Oran.

Fiction

Albert Camus' 1947 novel The Plague takes place in a fictional Oran.

Template:Algeriade:Oran fr:Oran nl:Oran

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