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Malmö (Template:Audio) is the third largest municipality in Sweden. It is located in the southernmost province of Scania and has a population of about 270,000.

Malmö was one of the earliest and most industrialized towns of Scandinavia but has been struggling with unemployment and the adaption to post-industrialism. Recently it has made a transition to a more cultural city, and has become Sweden's most multi-ethnic city with 24% of the population born abroad,

Malmö stad (Kommun)
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Malmö_in_Sweden.png



See also:Municipalities of Sweden
Coat of arms
Image:Malmö.png
Seat Malmö
County Skåne County
Province Scania
Area
     Rank
156 km²
258th of 290
Population
     Rank
267,171 (2004)
3rd of 290
Density 1712.6/km²


Contents

Population figures

Malmö urban area consists of Malmö and the adjacent tiny municipality of Burlöv.

The Metropolitan Malmö includes all municipalities in South-Western Scania. Malmö is the principal town in this metropolitan area with some 500,000 inhabitants.

Malmö–Lund and the vastly greater Metropolitan Copenhagen in Denmark, forms the center of the Oresund Region that has a total population of 3,500,000 inhabitants. To some Danes, Malmö has become the most recent suburb of Copenhagen.

History

Malmö is held to have been founded in 1254, the year of Copenhagen's first town privileges, or in the immediately following years, as the archbishop's of Lund fortified quay or ferry berth,

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St Petri Church in Malmö
Around 1290, construction on the St Petri Church began. It was the first Gothic church to be built in Sweden. Similar red brick churches can be found around the coastal regions of both Sweden and Germany (for example in Ystad, Landskrona and Rostock), and were inspired by the German sea merchants, the Hansa, who played a major part in the economical growths around the Sound. Red bricks were used instead of stone, due to its scarcity in the area, and the color comes from the bedrock and the means the bricks were fabricated.
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Malmö in 1580 from a German map book. The German name Elbogen, elbow, indicates the shape of Malmö coastal line.

In the ensuing century, Malmö and Copenhagen would rise in economic importance, and until this day this pattern has persisted. Despite Lund (and to lesser degree Roskilde) being culturally of much greater importance, Malmö and Copenhagen have been centers for industrious and economic success. The disunity between the burghers of Lund and Malmö has remained a fundamental characteristic, the former relying on tradition the latter on modernity and adaption. Malmö was, for instance, a leading hanseatic town during the decades of the Hansa's dominance in the region, and leading the process of Protestant Reformation in Denmark of the 1530s. Also after the secession to Sweden, in 1658, Malmö has kept this role.

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Malmöhus Castle, now housing Malmö Museum

The first fortification was erected at the site of Skeppsbron and Malmö Central Station, first hinted at in unfriendly diplomatic correspondence between the king and the archbishop in March 1256, but Malmö's growth gave in 1434 reason to the erection of a new citadel at the beach south of the town. The new fortress, Malmöhus, was completed in the mid-16th century and continued to play an essential role after the secession to Sweden — now as a part of the defense system against the Danes. During 1828–1914 the building was re-used as a prison, and since the 1930s it's housed Malmö museum.

Heraldry

The city arms were granted in 1437 by King Eric of Pomerania. The arms of Pomerania is argent with a griffin gules, which gave the griffin's head to Malmö. The coat of arms for the city is similar to the arms of the province of Scania and Skåne County, although they actually depict different animals, besides differing in colors. Blazon: "Argent, a Griffin's head erased Gules, crowned Or".

Geography

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Malmö city hall, Rådhuset, built in 1546 at Stortorget ("the Big Square"), although the facade is from the 1860s.

Malmö is part of the transnational Oresund Region and since 2000 the Oresund Bridge crosses the Oresund strait to Copenhagen. The bridge was inaugurated July 1, 2000, and measures 8 kilometres, with pylons reaching 204.5 metres vertically. The bridge has put in question the existence of ferries to Copenhagen, that since Malmö's foundation in the 12th century have been a matter of course.

Commuter trains pass the bridge every 20 minutes connecting Malmö, Copenhagen, and the Copenhagen Metro (inaugurated on Oct 19, 2002). Also some of the Intercity trains to Stockholm, Gothenburg, Oslo, and Hamburg pass the bridge. All these trains stop at Copenhagen Airport.

Malmö, as the southern hub of the Swedish railway system and the western hub of the Scanian commuter train system, has excellent train connections. A night train line to Berlin, by ferry over the Baltic, has been in traffic since 1909.

In March of 2005, digging began on a new railroad connection called Citytunneln (The City Tunnel). The tunnel will run from under Malmö Central to Hyllievång (Hyllie Meadow), where it will emerge to connect with the Oresund Bridge, effectively changing Malmö Central from an end station to a through station. A new stop will also be built at Triangeln (The Triangle), an important square in the city surrouned by shopping, housing, and cultural attractions. At the emergence of the tunnel in Hylievång, a new shopping centre, sports hall, and hotel are to be built.

Beside the Copenhagen Airport, Malmö is also served by the Malmö-Sturup Airport that chiefly is used for low-cost carriers, charter flight routes, and domestic Swedish destinations.

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Major bike roads in red, major parks and beaches in green.

The highway network was further improved in connection with the opening of the Oresund Bridge. European route E47 (formerly E6) follows the Swedish and Norwegian west coast from Malmö–Helsingborg to Kirkenes at Barents Sea. The European route to JönköpingStockholm (formerly E4) starts at Helsingborg. Main roads in direction of VäxjöKalmar, KristianstadKarlskrona, Ystad, and Trelleborg start as freeways.

Malmö is sometimes referred to as the city of parks ("parkernas stad"), the largest two being Pildammsparken and Kungsparken, the long beaches, and a longtime tradition of decorating the city with plants and flowers of the season.

Biking is a popular means of transport, since Malmö is a city virtually without altitude differences and since the snow season is usually brief. A continuous network of bike roads, in intersections often with right of precedence over for cars, has in recent decades been a priority beside the rather extensive public transport system. The trolley cars were however abolished in 1973.

A Swedish deregulation of taxicabs in the 1990's turned out particularly advantageous for Malmö. The supply of cabs is good, and most operate to low fixed fares, usually arriving within three–four minutes if requested by phone, which is the most convenient. For tourists, however, it's advisable to compare prices.

Economy

The economy of Malmö was traditionally based on shipbuilding (Kockums AB) and construction related industries, such as concrete factories. The region's leading university, with associated hi-tech and pharmaceutical industry, is located in nearby Lund. As a result, Malmö had a troubled economic situation following the mid-1970s. However, during the last few years there has been a revival. Contributing factors have been the economic integration brought about by the bridge, the university founded in 1998, and effects of integration into the European Union.

According to Dansk Folkeparti and domestic talk radio personalities, Malmö's 1970s-build low-status outer neighbourhoods, typically exemplified by Rosengård ("Rose Garden"), are ghettos boiling with gangs and riots. Fox News in 2004 exemplified with Malmö to demonstrate the danger of Muslim immigration to Europe[1] (http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,139614,00.html). The municipality of Malmö and the state of Sweden invest proportionally large sums on schools and other forms of social welfare in these quite segregated neighbourhoods.

Education

Malmö has a variety of both public and private schools. One of the most notable private schools is Bladins, with an impeccable reputation and huge waiting lists. Malmö Borgarskola is the largest high school in the city, also holding the renowned IB school, one of the best in the World, rivaling that of London, Paris and New York.

Higher education

Malmö has the country's eighth largest teaching site (Malmö Högskola) established in 1998, with 1,300 employees and 21,000 students (as of 2003). Also the Lund University (established in 1666) has some education located to Malmö.

The Maritime University is one of the best universities of it's kind, had holds a variety of students from all over the world..


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Model of Turning Torso skyscraper (still under construction, as of 2005)

Sites of interest

The city is gaining in popularity as a tourist destination. It retains much historical charm with an "old town" section filled with small shops. Malmö also offers a late-medieval castle, housing a small city museum and a fairly large art gallery.

Nightlife and music scene are mainly centered around two places: Lilla Torg ("Little Square") is encircled by trendy pubs and upmarket night clubs, while the district of Möllevången ("the Mill Meadow") houses hang-outs for artists and good opportunities for live music.

In August each year a festival, Malmöfestivalen, fills the streets of Malmö with different kinds of cuisines and events, along with pickpocketeers.

Västra Hamnen (The Western Harbour) used to be the location for heavy industry but in 2001 it was rebuilt as a neighbourhood of exclusive apartments, including those in the Turning Torso. The tower is a spectacular twisting skyscraper of 190 metres (623 feet). Its siluette can be seen from anyhwere in Malmö. It is the second highest residential building in Europe. The long boardwalk at the beach has become a new favourite summer hang-out for the people of Malmö and is a popular place for bathing.

The beach of Ribersborg is situated close to the city centre and is a shallow beach, stretching along Malmö's coast line. It is the site of Ribergsborgs Kallbadhus (http://www.ribban.com), an open air bath, where the people of Malmö go swimming all year round.

An extension of the city library was finished in 2000, called the Light Hall, its wall are almost entire made up of glass panels.

Culture

The Old Cemetery (Gamla Kyrkogården), established in 1819 and today right in the city center, appalled William S. Burroughs when he visited Malmö briefly in the 1950s. In The Naked Lunch he notes that the city was dreadful since he could not find any open bar or cinema; thus there was nothing to do except staying in the hotel room, waiting for the ferry back to Copenhagen.

This was asserted by several other visitor to Malmö during the last decades, but today the image has changed, thanks to an opera house, several theaters, the connection to Copenhagen, and the closure of the old ship industry Kockums. The inaugruration of Malmö Högskola has attracted many students, and the lack of apartments for students in the studying at the nearby Lund University has also forced students to settle in Malmö.

Sports

The best known football (soccer) team in Malmö is Malmö FF who play in the top division Allsvenskan. They had their period of glamour in the 70's and 80's, when they won the league on a number of occasions. In 1979 the advanced to the finals of what is know UEFA Champions League. The 90's brought them nothing but difficulties, and one year they were degraded one division. However, several of the otherwise "problematic" immigrants have proved to be golden geeses for the team. The in Sweden record-sum at the sale of Zlatan Ibrahimovic has allowed the team to spend on acquiring other players, as well as allowing more immigrants into the team, noting how well the multi-ethnicity works on the field. And in 2004, they won the Allsvenskan for the first time in 15 years.

The second most notable team is Malmö Redhawks, in ice hockey. They were the creation of a millionaire and quickly rose to the highest rank in the 90's.

People connected to Malmö

See also

External links

da:Malmø de:Malmö eo:Malmö fr:Malmö la:Malmogia no:Malmö pl:Malmö sr:Малме fi:Malmö sv:Malmö

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