Bernoulli's principle

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(Redirected from Bernoulli's law)

Bernoulli's principle states that in fluid flow, an increase in velocity occurs simultaneously with decrease in pressure. It is named for the Dutch/Swiss mathematician/scientist Daniel Bernoulli, though it was previously understood by Leonhard Euler and others. For a mathematical formulation, see Bernoulli's equation. In a fluid flow with no viscosity, and therefore one in which a pressure difference is the only accelerating force, it is equivalent to Newton's laws of motion.

One way of understanding how an airfoil develops lift relies upon the pressure differential above and below a wing. The pressure can be calculated by finding the velocities around the wing and using Bernoulli's equation. However, this explanation often uses false information, such as the incorrect assumption that the air that separates at the leading edge of a wing must meet at the trailing edge. There are other ways of understanding aerodynamic lift that many novices find more intuitive (see Coanda Effect).

Bernoulli's principle is also important in carburetors. In a carburetor, air is passed through a Venturi tube to increase its speed and therefore decrease its pressure. The low pressure air is routed over a tube leading to a fuel tank. The low pressure sucks the fuel into the airflow so that the combined fuel and air can be sent to the engine. This same effect can be observed by blowing over a straw; the liquid level will rise as the flow over the top of the straw increases in speed.

Another important application is cavitation, or the prevention of such cavitation. As an example, a ship's propeller rotating at high speed may cause the local water (or other liquid) pressure to decrease enough for the liquid to become a gas, producing bubbles. When these collapse, pitting occurs on the face of the propeller, and noise results. The latter may be detected by means of sonar.

da:Bernoullis princip de:Gesetz von Bernoulli es:Principio de Bernoulli nl:principe van Bernoulli


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